Natural Language & Linguistic Theory

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 1181–1243 | Cite as

Quasi-definites in Swedish: Elative superlatives and emphatic assertion

Article

Abstract

This paper analyzes nominal phrases in Swedish with a definite article but no definite suffix on the head noun, which we call quasi-definites (e.g. det största intresse ‘the greatest interest’). These diverge from the usual ‘double definiteness’ pattern where the article and the suffix co-occur (e.g. det största intresse-t ‘the greatest interest-def’). We give several diagnostics showing that this pattern arises only with superlatives on an elative (‘to a very high degree’) interpretation, and that quasi-definites behave semantically as indefinites, although they have limited scope options and are resistant to polarity reversals. Rather than treating the article and the suffix as marking different aspects of definiteness, we propose that both are markers of uniqueness and that the definite article signals definiteness that is confined to the adjectival phrase and combines with a predicate of degrees rather than individuals in this construction. The reason that quasi-definites do not behave precisely as ordinary indefinites has to do with their pragmatics: Like emphatic negative polarity items, elative superlatives require that the assertion be stronger (≈ more surprising) than alternatives formed by replacing the highest degree with lower degrees, and have a preference for entailment scales.

Keywords

Definiteness Superlatives Degree semantics Elatives Polarity sensitivity Strength of assertion Scandinavian Swedish 

References

  1. Abbott, Barbara. 1997. Definiteness and existentials. Language 73: 103–108. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilar-Guevara, Ana, and Joost Zwarts. 2010. Weak definites and reference to kinds. In Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) 20, 179–196. eLanguage. Google Scholar
  3. Alexiadou, Artemis. 2014. Multiple determiners and the structure of DPs. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aloni, Maria, and Floris Roelofsen. 2014. Indefinites in comparatives. Natural Language Semantics 22: 145–167. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anscombre, Jean-Claude, and Oswald Ducrot. 1983. L’argumentation dans la langue. Brussels: Mardaga. Google Scholar
  6. Asudeh, Ash, and Line Mikkelsen. 2000. Incorporation in Danish: Implications for interfaces. In Grammatical interfaces in HPSG, eds. Ronnie Cann, Claire Grover, and Philip Miller, 1–15. Stanford: CSLI Publications. Google Scholar
  7. Baker, Carl Leroy. 1970. Double negatives. Linguistic Inquiry 1: 167–186. Google Scholar
  8. Barker, Chris, and Chung-Chieh Shan. 2008. Donkey anaphora is in-scope binding. Semantics and Pragmatics 1(1): 1–40. Google Scholar
  9. Barwise, Jon, and Robin Cooper. 1981. Generalized quantifiers and natural language. Linguistics and Philosophy 4: 159–219. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beaver, David, and Emiel Krahmer. 2001. A partial account of presupposition projection. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10: 147–182. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beltrama, Andrea. 2014. Scalar meaning in diachrony: The suffix -issimo from Latin to Italian. In North East Linguistic Society (NELS) 44, eds. Jyoti Iyer and Leland Kusmer, 29–40. Amherst: GLSA. Google Scholar
  12. Beltrama, Andrea, and Ryan Bochnak. 2015. Intensification without degrees cross-linguistically. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 33: 843–879. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berlanda, Sara. 2013. Constructional intensifying adjectives in Italian. In Multiword Expressions (MWE) 9. Association for Computational Linguistics. Google Scholar
  14. Bobaljik, Jonathan David. 2012. Universals in comparative morphology: Suppletion, superlatives, and the structure of words. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  15. Bolinger, Dwight. 1972. Degree words. The Hague: Mouton. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borik, Olga, and Berit Gehrke. 2015. The syntax and semantics of pseudo-incorporation. Leiden: Brill. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Börjars, Kersti. 1995. Swedish double determination in a European typological perspective. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 17: 219–252. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Börjars, Kersti. 1998. Feature distribution in Swedish noun phrases. Oxford: Blackwell. Google Scholar
  19. Börjars, Kersti, and Mark Donohue. 2000. Much ado about nothing: Features and zeros in Germanic noun phrases. Studia Linguistica 54: 309–353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Borthen, Kaja. 2003. Norwegian bare singulars. PhD diss., Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Google Scholar
  21. Borthen, Kaja. 2007. The distribution and interpretation of Norwegian bare superlatives. Department of language and communication studies, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Google Scholar
  22. Borthen, Kaja. 2008. Beste foredrag i manns minne? Om nakne superlativer [Best presentation in the memory of humankind? On bare superlatives]. Presentation (with hand-out) at Språkdagen, Dragvoll, NTNU. Google Scholar
  23. Bylinina, Lisa, and Yasutada Sudo. 2015. Varieties of intensification: Remarks on Beltrama and Bochnak ‘Intensification without degrees cross-linguistically’. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 33: 881–895. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carlson, Gregory. 2006. The meaningful bounds of incorporation. In Non-definiteness and plurality, eds. Svetlana Vogeleer and Liliane Tasmowski, 35–50. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carlson, Gregory, and Rachel Sussman. 2005. Seemingly indefinite definites. In Linguistic evidence: Empirical, theoretical, and computational perspectives, eds. Stephan Kesper and Marga Reis, 26–30. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  26. Carlson, Gregory N., Rachel Sussman, Natalie Klein, and Michael Tannenhaus. 2006. Weak definite noun phrases. In North East Linguistic Society (NELS) 36, eds. Christopher Davis, Amy Rose Deal, and Youri Zabal, 179–196. GSLA, University of Massachusetts. Google Scholar
  27. Chierchia, Gennaro. 1995. Dynamics of meaning: Anaphora, presupposition, and the theory of grammar. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chierchia, Gennaro. 1998. Reference to kinds across languages. Natural Language Semantics 6: 339–405. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chierchia, Gennaro. 2006. Broaden your views: Implicatures of domain widening and the “logicality” of language. Linguistic Inquiry 37(4): 535–590. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chierchia, Gennaro. 2013. Logic in grammar: Polarity, free choice, and intervention. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chung, Sandra, and William Ladusaw. 2004. Restriction and saturation. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  32. Cinque, Gugliemo. 2010. The syntax of adjectives. Linguistic inquiry monographs. Cambridge: MIT Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Claridge, Claudia. 2007. The superlative in spoken English. In Corpus linguistics: 25 years on, ed. Roberta Facchinetti, 121–148. Amsterdam: Rodopi. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cooper, Robin. 1986. Swedish and the head-feature convention. In Topics in Scandinavian syntax, eds. Lars Hellan and Kirsti Koch Christensen. Studies in natural language and linguistic theory, 31–52. Dordrecht: Reidel. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Coppock, Elizabeth. 2009. The logical and empirical foundations of Baker’s Paradox. PhD diss., Stanford University. Google Scholar
  36. Coppock, Elizabeth, and David Beaver. 2012. Weak uniqueness: The only difference between definites and indefinites. In Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) 22, ed. Anca Chereches, 527–544. Ithaca: CLC Publications. Google Scholar
  37. Coppock, Elizabeth, and David Beaver. 2015. Definiteness and determinacy. Linguistics and Philosophy 38(5), 377–435. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cresswell, Max J. 1977. The semantics of degree. In Montague grammar, ed. Barbara Partee, 261–292. New York: Academic Press. Google Scholar
  39. Crnič, Luka. 2011. Getting even. PhD diss., MIT. Google Scholar
  40. Dahl, Östen. 1978. How do noun phrases refer? In The Nordic languages and modern linguistics, ed. John Weinstock. Austin: University of Texas Press. Google Scholar
  41. Dahl, Östen. 2004. Definite articles in Scandinavian: Competing grammaticalization processes in standard and non-standard varieties. In Dialectology meets typology: Dialect grammar from a cross-linguistic perspective, ed. Bernd Kortmann. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  42. Dahl, Östen. 2015. Grammaticalization in the North: Noun phrase morphosyntax in Scandinavian vernaculars. Berlin: Language Science Press. Google Scholar
  43. Dayal, Veneeta. 2003. A semantics for pseudo-incorporation. Ms., Rutgers University. Google Scholar
  44. Dayal, Veneeta. 2004. Number marking and (in)definiteness in kind terms. Linguistics and Philosophy 27: 393–450. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dayal, Veneeta. 2011. Hindi pseudo-incorporation. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 29(1): 1–45. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Delsing, Lars-Olof. 1988. The Scandinavian noun phrase. In Working papers in Scandinavian syntax, Vol. 42, 57–79. Lund: Lund University. Google Scholar
  47. Delsing, Lars-Olof. 1993. The internal structure of noun phrases in the Scandinavian languages. Malmö: Team Offset. Google Scholar
  48. Ducrot, Oswald. 1973. La preuve et le dire. Paris: Maison Mame. Google Scholar
  49. Ducrot, Oswald. 1980. Les échelles argumentatives. Paris: Minuit. Google Scholar
  50. Embick, David, and Rolf Noyer. 2001. Movement operations after syntax. Linguistic Inquiry 32: 555–595. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Espinal, Maria T., and Louise McNally. 2011. Bare nominals and incorporating verbs in Catalan and Spanish. Journal of Linguistics 47(2): 87–128. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Farkas, Donka. 2002. Specificity distinctions. Journal of Semantics 19(3): 213–243. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Farkas, Donka, and Henriëtte de Swart. 2003. The semantics of incorporation. Stanford: CSLI Publications. Google Scholar
  54. Fauconnier, Gilles. 1975a. Polarity and the scale principle. In Chicago Linguistic Society (CLS) 11, eds. Robin E. Grossman, L. James San, and Timothy J. Vance, 188–199. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. Google Scholar
  55. Fauconnier, Gilles. 1975b. Pragmatic scales and logical structure. Linguistic Inquiry 6(3): 353–375. Google Scholar
  56. Fitzgibbons, Natalia, Yael Sharvit, and Jon Gajewski. 2009. Plural superlatives and distributivity. In Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) 18, eds. Tova Friedman and Satoshi Ito, 302–318. eLanguage. Google Scholar
  57. Francez, Itamar. 2009. Existentials, predication, and modification. Linguistics and Philosophy 32(1): 1–50. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Frege, Gottlob. 1892 [reprinted 1948]. Sense and reference. Philosophical Review 57(3): 209–230. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Geach, Peter. 1962. Reference and generality. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Google Scholar
  60. Geenhoven, Veerle van. 1996. Semantic incorporation and indefinite descriptions: Semantic and syntactic aspects of West Greenlandic noun incorporation. PhD diss., University of Tübingen. Google Scholar
  61. Gelderen, Elly van, and Terje Lohndal. 2008. The position of adjectives and double definiteness. In Working papers in Scandinavian syntax, Vol. 82, 1–22. Lund: Lund University. Google Scholar
  62. Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2007. The landscape of EVEN. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 25: 39–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2011. Negative and positive polarity items. In Handbook of semantics, eds. Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger, and Paul Portner, 1660–1712. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  64. Gyarmathy, Zsófia. 2012. The role of granularity in event semantics. In Twenty years of theoretical linguistics in Budapest, eds. Ferenc Kiefer and Zolán Bánréti, 93–108. Budapest: Tinta Publishing House. Google Scholar
  65. Hackl, Martin. 2009. On the grammar and processing of proportional quantifiers: most vs. more than half. Natural Language Semantics 17: 63–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hankamer, Jorge, and Line Mikkelsen. 2002. A morphological analysis of definite nouns in Danish. Journal of Germanic Linguistics 14: 127–175. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hankamer, Jorge, and Line Mikkelsen. 2005. When movement must be blocked: A reply to Embick and Noyer. Linguistic Inquiry 36: 85–125. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Heck, Fabian, Gereon Müller, and Jochen Trommer. 2008. A phase-based approach to Scandinavian definiteness marking. In West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL) 26, eds. Charles B. Chang and Hannah J. Haynie, 226–233. Somerville: Cascadilla Press. Google Scholar
  69. Heim, Irene. 1982. The semantics of definite and indefinite noun phrases. PhD diss., U. Mass Amherst. Google Scholar
  70. Heim, Irene. 1991. Artikel und Definitheit. In Semantik: Ein internationales handbuch der zeitgenössischen forschung, eds. Arnim von Stechow and Dieter Wunderlich, 487–535. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  71. Heim, Irene. 1999. Notes on superlatives. Ms., MIT. Google Scholar
  72. Heim, Irene. 2000. Degree operators and scope. In Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) 10, eds. Brendan Jackson and Tanya Matthews, 40–64. Ithaca: CLC Publications. Google Scholar
  73. Heim, Irene. 2006. Remarks on comparative clauses as generalized quantifiers. Available on Semantics Archive. Google Scholar
  74. Heim, Irene, and Angelika Kratzer. 1998. Semantics in generative grammar. Oxford: Blackwell. Google Scholar
  75. Hellan, Lars. 1986. The headedness of NPs in Norwegian. In Features and projections, eds. Pieter Muysken and Henk van Riesdijk, 89–122. Dordrecht: Foris. Google Scholar
  76. Herburger, Elena. 2000. What counts: Focus and quantification. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  77. Herdan, Simona, and Yael Sharvit. 2006. Definite and nondefinite superlatives and NPI licensing. Syntax 9(1): 1–31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Heyd, Sophie. 2003. L’interpretation des syntagmes nominaux en ‘des’ et ‘de’ en position sujet et objet. PhD diss., University of Strasbourg 2. Google Scholar
  79. Hoeksema, Jack. 1985. Categorial morphology. New York: Garland. Google Scholar
  80. Holmberg, Anders. 1987. The structure of NP in Swedish. In Working papers in Scandinavian Syntax, Vol. 33, 1–23. Lund: Lund University. Google Scholar
  81. Israel, Michael. 2011. The grammar of polarity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Julien, Marit. 2002. Syntactic heads and word formation. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  83. Julien, Marit. 2005. Nominal phrases from a Scandinavian perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kallulli, Dalina. 1999. The comparative syntax of Albanian: On the contribution of syntactic types to propositional interpretation. PhD diss., University of Durham. Google Scholar
  85. Kamp, Hans. 1981. Some remarks on the logic of change, Part I. In Time, tense, and quantifiers, 135–179. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. Google Scholar
  86. Kamp, Hans, and Uwe Reyle. 1993. From discourse to logic. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Google Scholar
  87. Karttunen, Lauri. 1976. Discourse referents. In Notes from the linguistic underground, ed. James D. McCawley. Syntax and semantics, 363–385. New York: Academic Press. Google Scholar
  88. Karttunen, Lauri, and Stanley Peters. 1979. Conventional implicatures. In Presuppositions, eds. Choon-Kyu Oh and David A. Dinneen. Syntax and semantics. New York: Academic Press. Google Scholar
  89. Katzir, Roni. 2011. Morphosyntactic mismatches, structural economy, and licensing. Linguistic Inquiry 42: 45–82. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kay, Paul. 1990. Even. Linguistics and Philosophy 13: 59–111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kay, Paul. 1997. Words and the grammar of context. Stanford: CSLI Publications. Google Scholar
  92. Kennedy, Christopher. 2014. A de-Fregean semantics (and neo-Gricean pragmatics) for modified and unmodified numerals. Semantics and Pragmatics. Google Scholar
  93. Kester, Ellen-Petra. 1993. The inflectional properties of Scandinavian adjectives. Studia Linguistica 47: 139–153. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kiefer, Ferenc. 1994. Noun incorporation in Hungarian. Acta Linguistica Hungarica 40(1–2): 149–177. Google Scholar
  95. Krasikova, Sveta. 2012. Definiteness in superlatives. In Logic, language and meaning, eds. Maria Aloni, Vadim Kimmelman, Floris Roelofsen, Galit W. Sassoon, Katrin Schulz, and Matthijs Westera, 411–420. Dordrecht: Springer. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Krifka, Manfred. 1995. The semantics and pragmatics of polarity items. Linguistic Analysis 25: 209–257. Google Scholar
  97. Kripke, Saul A. 2011. Philosophical troubles: Collected papers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lahiri, Uptal. 1998. Focus and negative polarity in Hindi. Natural Language Semantics 6: 57–123. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Leu, Thomas. 2008. The internal syntax of determiners. PhD diss., New York University. Google Scholar
  100. Lyons, Christopher. 1999. Definiteness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Matushansky, Ora. 2008. On the attributive nature of superlatives. Syntax 11: 26–90. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. McNally, Louise. 1992. An interpretation for the English existential construction. PhD diss., UC Santa Cruz. Google Scholar
  103. McNally, Louise. 1997. A semantics for the English existential construction. London: Taylor & Francis. Google Scholar
  104. Miller, Philip H. 1992. Clitics and constituents in phrase structure grammar. New York: Garland. Google Scholar
  105. Milsark, Gary. 1977. Toward an explanation of certain peculiarities of the existential construction in English. Linguistic Analysis 3: 1–29. Google Scholar
  106. Neville, Anne. 2000. An HPSG account of Danish pre-nominals. PhD diss., University of Copenhagen. Google Scholar
  107. Oebel, Guido, ed. 2012. Crosslinguistic comparison of intensified adjectives and adverbs. Hamburg: Verlag dr. Kovač. Google Scholar
  108. Partee, Barbara H. 1986. Noun phrase interpretation and type-shifting principles. In Studies in Discourse Representation Theory and the theory of generalized quantifiers, eds. Jeroen Groenendijk, Dick de Jongh, and Martin Stokhof, 115–143. Dordrecht: Foris. Google Scholar
  109. Partee, Barbara H., and Mats Rooth. 1983. Generalized conjunction and type ambiguity. In Meaning, use and the interpretation of language, eds. Rainer Bäuerle, Christoph Schwartze, and Arnim von Stechow, 361–393. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  110. Payne, John, and Kersti Börjars. 1994. Swedish noun phrases meet Categorial Grammar. In XIVth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics and the VIIIth Conference of Nordic and General Linguistics, August 16–21, 1993. Special session on Scandinavian Syntax. Gothenburg Papers in Theoretical Linguistics, 111–126. Google Scholar
  111. Percus, Orin. 2006. Antipresuppositions. In Theoretical and empirical studies of reference and anaphora: Toward the establishment of generative grammar as an empirical science, ed. Ayumi Ueyama, 52–73. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Google Scholar
  112. Platzack, Christer. 2000. A complement-of-N0 account of restrictive and non-restrictive relatives: The case of Swedish. In The syntax of relative clauses, eds. Artemis Alexiadou, Paul Law, André Meinunger, and Chris Wilder, 265–308. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. 1985. A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London: Longman. Google Scholar
  114. Roberts, Craige. 2003. Uniqueness in definite noun phrases. Linguistics and Philosophy 26: 287–350. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Roehrs, Dorian. 2009. Demonstratives and definite articles as nominal auxiliaries. Linguistik aktuell/linguistics today. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rooij, Robert van. 2003. Negative polarity items in questions: Strength as relevance. Journal of Semantics 20: 239–273. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rooth, Mats. 1985. Association with focus. PhD diss., University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Google Scholar
  118. Rullmann, Hotze. 1995. Maximality in the semantics of wh-constructions. PhD diss., University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Google Scholar
  119. Sadock, Jerrold M. 1991. Autolexical syntax. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
  120. Santelmann, Lynn. 1993. The distribution of double determiners in Swedish: Den support in D. Studia Linguistica 47 (154–176). Google Scholar
  121. Sauerland, Uli, and Penka Stateva. 2007. Scalar vs. epistemic vagueness: Evidence from approximators. In Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) 17, eds. Masayuki Gibson and Tova Friedman. eLanguage. Google Scholar
  122. Scheible, Silke. 2009. A computational treatment of superlatives. PhD diss., University of Edinburgh. Google Scholar
  123. Schlenker, Philippe. 2011. Maximize Presupposition and Gricean reasoning. Ms., UCLA and Institut Jean-Nicod. Google Scholar
  124. Schmitt, Cristina, and Alan Munn. 1999. Against the Nominal Mapping Parameter: Bare nouns in Brazilian Portuguese. In North East Linguistic Society (NELS), eds. Nancy Hall, Masako Hirotani, and Pius Tamanji, Vol. 29, 339–353. Amherst: GLSA. Google Scholar
  125. Scholten, Jolien, and Ana Aguilar-Guevara. 2010. Accessing the discourse referential properties of weak definite NPs. In Linguistics in the Netherlands, eds. Jacqueline van Kampen and Rick Nouwen, Vol. 27, 115–128. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Google Scholar
  126. Schoorlemmer, Eric. 2009. Agreement, dominance and doubling. PhD diss., University of Utrecht. Google Scholar
  127. Schwarz, Florian. 2012. How weak and how definite are weak definites? University of Pennsylvania. Google Scholar
  128. Schwarzschild, Roger. 2008. The semantics of comparatives and other degree constructions. Language and Linguistics Compass 2(2): 308–331. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Siegel, Muffy E. 1976. Capturing the adjective. PhD diss., University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Google Scholar
  130. Simonenko, Alexandra P. 2007. Grammatical ingredients of definiteness. PhD diss., McGill University. Google Scholar
  131. Stateva, Penka. 2005. Presuppositions in superlatives. Ms., ZAS Berlin. Google Scholar
  132. Stroh-Wollin, Ulla. 2011. A semantic approach to noun phrase structure and the definite-indefinite distinction in Germanic and Romance. In The noun phrase in Romance and Germanic: Structure, variation and change, eds. Petra Sleeman and Harry Perridon, 127–140. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Stroh-Wollin, Ulla, and Rico Simke. 2014. Strong and weak adjectives in Old Swedish. In Adjectives in Germanic and Romance, eds. Freek Van de Velde, Petra Sleeman, and Harry Perridon, 95–112. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Svenonius, Peter. 1993. Selection, adjunction, and concord in the DP. Studia Linguistica 47: 198–220. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Svenonius, Peter. 1994. The structural location of the attributive adjective. In West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL) 12, eds. Erin Duncan, Donka Farkas, and Philip Spaelti, 438–454. Somerville: Cascadilla Press. Google Scholar
  136. Szabolcsi, Anna. 1986. Comparative superlatives. In Papers in theoretical linguistics, eds. Naoki Fukui, Tova Rapoport, and Elizabeth Sagey, 245–265. Cambridge: MITWPL. Google Scholar
  137. Szabolcsi, Anna. 2012. Compositionality without word boundaries: (the) more and (the) most. In Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) 22, eds. Anca Chereches, Neil Ashton, and David Lutz, 1–25. Ithaca: CLC Publications. Google Scholar
  138. Taraldsen, Knut Tarald. 1991. Two arguments for functional heads. Lingua 84: 85–108. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Teleman, Ulf, Staffan Hellberg, and Erik Andersson. 1999. Svenska Akademiens grammatik [The Swedish Academy Grammar], Vol. 1–4. Stockholm: Svenska Akademien/Norstedts. Google Scholar
  140. Vangsnes, Øystein Alexander. 1999. The identification of functional architecture. PhD diss., University of Bergen. Google Scholar
  141. Wagner, Michael. 2005. NPI licensing and focus movement. In Semantics and Linguistics Theory (SALT) 15, eds. Effi Georgala and Jonathan Howell. Ithaca: CLC Publications. Google Scholar
  142. Ward, Gregory, and Betty Birner. 1995. Definiteness and the English existential. Language 71: 722–742. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wechsler, Stephen, and Larisa Zlatić. 2003. The many faces of agreement: Morphology, syntax, semantics, and discourse factors in Serbo-Croatian agreement. Stanford: CSLI Publications. Google Scholar
  144. Wilkinson, Karina. 1986. The scope of even. Natural Language Semantics 4: 193–215. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Yee, Charles Woie-Jye. 2011. A lexical approach to presupposition and meaning. PhD diss., Universität Stuttgart. Google Scholar
  146. Zimmermann, Malte. 2015. Scalar particles, presuppositions, and implications for the analysis of contrastive topics: A cross-linguistic investigation of English and Vietnamese. Talk presented at ZAS, Berlin, July 2015. Google Scholar
  147. Zucchi, Alessandro. 1995. The ingredients of definiteness and the definiteness effect. Natural Language Semantics 3: 33–78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zwicky, Arnold. 1987. Suppressing the Zs. Journal of Linguistics 23: 133–148. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Philosophy, Linguistics, and Theory of ScienceUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Swedish Collegium for Advanced StudyUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.Department of SwedishUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden

Personalised recommendations