A design of generalized minimum-state-change FSSP algorithms and their implementations



The firing squad synchronization problem (FSSP) on cellular automata has been studied extensively for more than 50 years, and a rich variety of FSSP algorithms has been proposed. Here we consider the FSSP from a view point of state-change complexity that models the energy consumption of SRAM-type storage with which cellular automata might be built. In the present paper, we propose minimum-state-change generalized FSSP (GFSSP) algorithms for synchronizing any one-dimensional (1D) cellular automaton, where the initial synchronization operation is started by any cell in the array. First, we construct two minimum-time, minimum-state-change GFSSP implementations on finite state automata: one is based on Goto’s algorithm, known as the first minimum-time FSSP algorithm that was reconstructed again recently in Umeo et al. (A new reconstruction and the first implementation of Goto’s FSSP algorithm, 2017), and the other is based on Gerken’s (Diplomarbeit, Institut für Theoretische Informatik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, pp 1–50, 1987) one. These implementations are optimal not only in time but also in the state-change complexity. The implementations of the minimum-time GFSSP algorithms are the first ones having the minimum-state-change complexity. In addition, we also present a six-state 145-rule non-minimum-time, minimum-state-change GFSSP implementation. The implemented GFSSP algorithm is the smallest one, known at present, in number of states of the finite state automaton.


Cellular automaton Firing squad synchronization problem FSSP State-change complexity 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Osaka Electro-CommunicationOsakaJapan

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