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Mycopathologia

, Volume 181, Issue 1–2, pp 1–7 | Cite as

Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis: Yeast Species Isolated from Stool Samples of Children with Suspected or Diagnosed Autism Spectrum Disorders and In Vitro Susceptibility Against Nystatin and Fluconazole

  • A. Serda KantarciogluEmail author
  • Nuri Kiraz
  • Ahmet Aydin
Article

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a general term for a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders of brain development that limits a person’s ability to function normally. Etiology has not been clearly defined up to date. However, gut microbiota and the bidirectional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and brain, the so-called microbiota–gut–brain axis, are hypothesized, which may be involved in the etiology of several mental disorders. Recent reports suggest that Candida, particularly Candida albicans, growth in intestines may cause lower absorption of carbohydrates and minerals and higher toxin levels which are thought to contribute autistic behaviors. The aim of this study was to identify the 3-year deposited yeasts isolated from stool samples of children with diagnosed or suspected ASD and to determine in vitro activity of nystatin and fluconazole against these isolates using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 guidelines. A 17-year retrospective assessment was also done using our laboratory records. Among the species identified, intrinsically fluconazole-resistent Candida krusei (19.8 %) and Candida glabrata (14.8 %) with elevated MICs were remarkable. Overall, C. albicans (57.4 %) was the most commonly isolated species in 17 years. The species identification and/or antifungal susceptibility tests have to be performed using the strain isolated from stool sample, to select the appropriate antifungal agent, if antimycotic therapy is needed.

Keywords

Nystatin Fluconazole Gut microbiota Microbiota–gut–brain axis Autism spectrum disorders 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical considerations

The study protocol was approved by Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty Ethics Committee (date: 02.10.2014; No. 41302).

Conflict of interest

None.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Serda Kantarcioglu
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Nuri Kiraz
    • 1
  • Ahmet Aydin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medical MicrobiologyIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics Metabolic Diseases, Cerrahpasa Medical FacultyIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Deep Mycosis Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Cerrahpaşa Medical FacultyIstanbul UniversityCerrahpaşa, IstanbulTurkey

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