Effect of Trans, Trans-Farnesol on Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Several Closely Related Species
- 478 Downloads
Bat white-nose syndrome, caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has dramatically reduced the populations of many hibernating North American bat species. The search for effective biological control agents targeting P. destructans is of great importance. We report that the sesquiterpene trans, trans-farnesol, which is also a Candida albicans quorum sensing compound, prevented in vitro conidial germination for at least 14 days and inhibited growth of preexisting hyphae of five P. destructans isolates in filtered potato dextrose broth at 10 °C. Depending on the inoculation concentrations, both spore and hyphal inhibition occurred upon exposure to concentrations as low as 15–20 µM trans, trans-farnesol. In contrast, most North American Pseudogymnoascus isolates were more tolerant to the exposure of trans, trans-farnesol. Our results suggest that some Candida isolates may have the potential to inhibit the growth of P. destructans and that the sesquiterpene trans, trans-farnesol has the potential to be utilized as a biological control agent.
KeywordsBiological control Candida albicans quorum sensing compound Sesquiterpene White-nose syndrome
The authors wish to thank Andrea Porres-Alfaro, Dan Lindner, and Barrie Overton for providing isolates used in this study and Elizabeth Bach for technical support. The authors also wish to thank two anonymous reviewers who offered helpful insights to a previous version of this manuscript. This study was funded through awards given by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources State Wildlife Grants Program (Project Number T-78-R-1) and the Section 6 Endangered and Threatened Species Program (Project Number E-54-R-1) to the Illinois Natural History Survey.
- 3.Bandouchova H, Bartonicka T, Berkova H, Brichta J, Cerny J, Kovacova V, Kolarik M, Köllner B, Kulich P, Martínková N, Rehak Z, Turner GG, Zukal J, Pikula J. Pseudogymnoascus destructans: evidence of virulent skin invasion for bats under natural conditions, Europe. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2014;. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Chaturvedi S, Rajkumar SS, Li X, Hurteau GJ, Shtutman M, Chaturvedi V. Antifungal testing and high-throughput screening of compound library against Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of geomycosis (WNS) in bats. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(3):e17032. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017032.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.Perryman J, Turner G, Overton B. Evaluation of Epicoccum nigrum Link and polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000) in the control of Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Blehert & Gargas) Minnis & D.L. Lindner. In: 7th Annual White-nose syndrome workshop oral presentation and poster abstracts. 2014. https://www.whitenosesyndrome.org/sites/default/files/wns_2014-abstracts-final.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2015.
- 14.Brilhante RS, de Lima RA, Caetano EP, Leite JJ, Castelo-Branco Dde S, Ribeiro JF, Bandeira Tde J, Cordeiro Rde A, Monteiro AJ, Sidrim JJ, Rocha MF. Effect of farnesol on growth, ergosterol biosynthesis, and cell permeability in Coccidioides posadasii. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. 2013;57:2167–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Johnson LJ, Miller AN, McCleery RA, McClanahan R, Kath JA, Lueschow S, Porras-Alfaroa A. Psychrophilic and psychrotolerant fungi on bats and the presence of Geomyces spp. on bat wings prior to the arrival of white nose syndrome. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:5465–71.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Lorch JM, Lindner DL, Gargas A, Muller LK, Minnis AM, Blehert DS. A culture-based survey of fungi in soil from bat hibernacula in the eastern United States and its implications for detection of Geomyces destructans, the causal agent of bat white-nose syndrome. Mycologia. 2013;105:237–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar