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Candidiasis: Predisposing Factors, Prevention, Diagnosis and Alternative Treatment


Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic yeast infection. Candida species and other microorganisms are involved in this complicated fungal infection, but Candida albicans continues to be the most prevalent. In the past two decades, it has been observed an abnormal overgrowth in the gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory tracts, not only in immunocompromised patients, but also related to nosocomial infections and even in healthy individuals. There is a widely variety of causal factors that contribute to yeast infection which means that candidiasis is a good example of a multifactorial syndrome. Due to rapid increase in the incidence in these infections, this is the subject of numerous studies. Recently, the focus of attention is the treatment and, above all, the prevention of those complications. The diagnosis of candidiasis could become quite complicated. Prevention is the most effective “treatment,” much more than eradication of the yeast with antifungal agents. There are several aspects to consider in the daily routine that can provide a strength protection. However, a therapeutic approach is necessary when the infection is established, and therefore, other alternatives should be explored. This review provides an overview on predisposition factors, prevention and diagnosis of candidiasis, highlighting alternative approaches for candidiasis treatment.

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The authors are grateful to Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) for N. Martins grant (SFRH/BD/87658/2012), L. Barros researcher contract under “Programa Compromisso com Ciência—2008” and financial support to the research center CIMO (strategic project PEst-OE/AGR/UI0690/2011).

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Correspondence to Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira.

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Martins, N., Ferreira, I.C.F.R., Barros, L. et al. Candidiasis: Predisposing Factors, Prevention, Diagnosis and Alternative Treatment. Mycopathologia 177, 223–240 (2014).

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  • Candidiasis
  • Predisposing factors
  • Diagnosis
  • Prevention
  • Alternative treatment
  • Therapeutic approach