, Volume 174, Issue 1, pp 69–76 | Cite as

Susceptibilities of Candida albicans Mouth Isolates to Antifungal Agents, Essentials Oils and Mouth Rinses

  • Sara Carvalhinho
  • Ana Margarida Costa
  • Ana Cláudia Coelho
  • Eugénio Martins
  • Ana SampaioEmail author


Forty Candida albicans strains isolated from patient’s mouth with fixed orthodontic appliances were analyzed to their susceptibilities to antifungal agents, mouth rinses and essential oils. Susceptibility to fluconazole, econazole, miconazole and ketoconazole, amphotericin B and nystatin was assessed by the disk diffusion (DD) method based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M44-A protocol, and by Etest (fluconazole and amphotericin B). The susceptibilities to mouth rinses and essential oils were also determined by the DD technique. All isolates tested were susceptible (S) to amphotericin B, nystatin and fluconazole. The overall concordance between the DD and the Etest was 100% for amphotericin and fluconazole. One isolate was resistant to econazole (2.5%) and the other to ketoconazole (2.5%). Econazole and ketoconazole had the highest percentages of susceptible dose dependent (SDD), 55 and 95%, respectively. Regarding to the susceptibility isolates profile, seven phenotypes were detected, and the 3 more represented (90% of the isolates) of them were SDD to one, two or three azoles. The study of mouth rinses showed a high variability of efficacy against C. albicans. The results showed that the isolates susceptibility to essential oils differed (P < 0.05). The profile activity was: cinnamon > laurel > mint > eucalyptus > rosemary > lemon > myrrh > tangerine. The main finding was that the susceptibility to cinnamon and laurel varied among the three more representative antifungal phenotypes (P < 0.05). The susceptibility of econazole-SDD isolates to cinnamon and lemon was higher than those of the econazole-S yeasts (P < 0.05). In contrast, econazole-SDD isolates were less affected by laurel than econazole-S counterparts (P < 0.05).


Candida albicans Susceptibility Antifungal Essential oils Mouth rinses 



The authors wish to thank to the patients of a dental clinic for their prompt availability and patience in participating this survey.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Carvalhinho
    • 1
    • 4
  • Ana Margarida Costa
    • 1
  • Ana Cláudia Coelho
    • 2
  • Eugénio Martins
    • 3
  • Ana Sampaio
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biology and EnvironmentUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD)Vila RealPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Sciences, Centre for Animal and Veterinary Science (CECAV)UTADVila RealPortugal
  3. 3.Faculty of DentistryUniversity of PortoOportoPortugal
  4. 4.Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences (CITAB)Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto DouroVila RealPortugal

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