Mycopathologia

, Volume 163, Issue 4, pp 233–240 | Cite as

Selection of entomopathogenic fungi for use in combination with sub-lethal doses of imidacloprid: perspectives for the control of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdensrubropilosa Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

  • Adão Valmir Santos
  • Bruno Lorenz de Oliveira
  • Richard Ian Samuels
Original Paper

Abstract

In the first part of this study, four isolates of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin (LPP1, LPP2, CG05 and CG24) and one isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin (CG46) were tested against adult foragers of Atta sexdens rubropilosa. Ants were allowed to walk on filter paper discs, inside Petri dishes, previously impregnated with 1 ml of a conidia suspension (2 × 107 conidia ml−1), maintained at 80% RH and 26°C for 24 h and subsequently, transferred to sterile Petri dishes, maintained at 23°C, 80% RH, 24 h dark. The mean values of LT50 for LPP2, LPP1, CG46, CG24 and CG05 were 3.5, 3.7, 3.8, 4.2 and 4.4 days, respectively. Control insects for all tests in this study showed less than 10% mortality. Experiments were carried out to test the toxicity of imidacloprid (IMI) to A. sexdens rubropilosa. Mortality was evaluated 10 days following a 24 h exposure to the insecticide. Percent mortality caused by 500, 200, 100 and 10 ppm IMI was 77.8, 56.7, 45.5 and 5.5 respectively. Insects treated with 10 ppm IMI were observed to have reduced locomotor activity 24 h after exposure to the insecticide. The LC50 of IMI was 154.3 ppm. Subsequent tests were carried out to evaluate the combination of a sub-lethal dose of IMI (10 ppm) and infection by CG24 (1 × 107 conidia ml−1). Mortality due to fungal infection alone was 43.3%. Mortality of insects treated with IMI followed by exposure to the fungus was 64.3%. These results indicate that IMI significantly increases the susceptibility of ants to infection by B. bassiana CG24.

Keywords

Beauveria bassiana Biological control Metarhizium anisopliae Insecticide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cherrett JM, Peregrine DJ. A review of the status of leaf-cutting ants and their control. Ann App Biol 1976;84:124–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cherrett JM. The biology, pest status and control of leaf-cutting ants. Agric Zool Rev 1986;1:1–37.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lofgren CS. The search for chemical bait toxicants. In: Lofgren CS, Vander Meer RK, editors. Fire ants and leaf-cutting ants: biology and management. Colorado, USA: Westview Press; 1986. p. 369–77.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Debach P. Biological control by natural enemies. London: Cambridge University Press; 1974, 323 pp.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Charnley AK. Entomopathogenic fungi and their role␣in pest control. In: Wicklow DT, Söderström M, editors. The mycota IV—environmental and microbial relationships. Berlim Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 1997. pp. 185–201.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pereira RM, Stimac JL. Biocontrol options for urban pest ants. J Agric Entomol 1997;14:231–48.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jaccoud DB. Biological control of leaf-cutting ants, Atta sexdens: laboratory studies on the pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae. MSc. Thesis, University of London, UK, 1996.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Santos AV, Oliveira BL, Samuels RI. Selection of entomopathogenic fungi for the use in combination with sublethal doses of imidacloprid: perspectives for the control of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In: XXI International Congress Of Entomology. Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brazil, 2000, 540 p.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jaccoud DB, Hughes WO, Jackson CW. The epizootiology of Metarhizium infection in mini-nests of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 1999;93:51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Elbert A, Becker B, Hartwig J, Erdelen C. Imidacloprid—a new systemic insecticide. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer 1991;44:113–36.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boucias DG, Stokes C, Storey G, Pendland JC. The effects of imidacloprid on the termite Reticulitermes flavipes and its interaction with the mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer 1996;49:103–44.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lacey LA. Manual of techniques in insect pathology. San Diego, Cal.: Academic Press; 1997, 409 pp.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sparks TC, Sparks A. MicroProbit—program of analysis of dose response by a method of probit analysis, 1987.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Almeida JEM, Alves SB, Pereira RM. Selection of Beauveria spp. isolates for control of the termite Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen, 1858). J Appl Entomol 1997;121:539–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alves SB, Stimac JL, Camargo MTV. Suscetibilidade de Solenopsis invicta Buren e S. saevissima Fr. Smith. a isolados de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 1988;17:379–87.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Almeida JEM, Alves SB. Mortalidade de Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen) atraídos por armadilhas com Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. e imidacloprid. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 1996;25:507–12.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Almeida JEM, Alves SB, Moino A JR, Lopes RB. Controle do cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen) com iscas termitrap impregnadas com inseticidas e associadas ao fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 1997;27:639–44.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wilson EO. The insect societies. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Univ. Press; 1971, 548 pp.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kermarrec A, Febvay G, Decharme M. Protection of leaf-cutting ants from biohazards: is there a future for microbiological control? In: Lofgren CS, Vander-Meer RK, editors. Fire ants and leaf-cutting ants: biology and management. Colorado, USA: Westview Boulder; 1986. p. 339–56.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hölldobler B, Wilson EO. The ants. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Univ. Press; 1990, 732 pp.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oi DH, Pereira RM. Ant behavior and microbial pathogens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Fla Entomol 1993;76:63–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Currie CR, Stuart AE. Weeding and grooming of pathogens in agriculture by ants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 2001;268:1033–9.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Samuels RI, Coracini DAL. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates for the control of Blissus antillus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Scientia Agricola 2004;61:271–5.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Quintela ED, Mccoy CW. Effects of imidacloprid on development, mobility, and survival of first instars of␣Diaprepes abbeviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J␣Econ Entomol 1997;90:988–95.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Quintela ED, Mccoy CW. Pathogenicity enhancement of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to first instars of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with sublethal doses of imidacloprid. Environ Entomol 1997;26:1173–82.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Quintela ED, Mccoy CW. Synergistic effect of imidacloprid and two entomopathogenic fungi on the behavior and survival of larvae of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in soil. J Econ Entomol 1998;91:110–22.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Quintela ED, Mccoy CW. Conidial attachment of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to the larval cuticle of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) treated with imidacloprid. J Invertebr Pathol 1998;72:220–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Alves SB, Leucona RE. Epizootiologia aplicada ao controle microbiano de insetos. In: Alves SB, editor. Controle microbiano de insetos. Piracicaba: FEALQ; 1998. p. 97–169.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bot ANM, Currie CR, Hart AG, Boomsma JJ. Waste management in leaf-cutting ants. Ethol Ecol Evol 2001;13:225–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    North RD, Jackson V, Howse PE. Evolutionary aspects of ant fungus interaction in leaf-cutting ants. Trends Ecol Evol 1997;12:386–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Serrao AEC, Guedes RNC, Della Lucia TMC. Sub-lethal effects of abamectin suppressing colonies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus. Pest Manag Sci 2000;56:1059–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adão Valmir Santos
    • 1
  • Bruno Lorenz de Oliveira
    • 1
  • Richard Ian Samuels
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Entomology and Plant PathologyCCTA – Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense – Darcy RibeiroCampos dos GoytacazesBrasil

Personalised recommendations