Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has been grown in Papua New Guinea since the early 1960s. The most important disease of oil palm in PNG is a stem rot of the palm base. This is the same disease that constitutes a major threat to sustainable oil palm production in SE Asia. Investigations into the causal pathogen have revealed that the stem rots in PNG are caused predominantly by the basidiomycete Ganoderma boninense, with a minor pathogen identified as G. tornatum G. tornatum was found to have a broad host range whereas G. boninense appears to be restricted to palms. The population structure of G. boninense was investigated using inter-fertility studies between isolates collected from basal stem rots on oil palm. Although the G. boninense field populations are predominantly comprised of distinct individuals, a number of isolates were found that share single mating alleles. This indicates that out-crossing had occurred over several generations in the resident or wild population of G. boninense prior to colonization of oil palm. No direct hereditary relationship between isolates on neighbouring diseased palms was found, although an indirect link between isolates causing upper stem rot and basal stem rot was detected.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
PD Turner (1981) Oil Palm Diseases and Disorders Oxford University Press UK
YW Ho A Nawawi (1985) ArticleTitleGanoderma boninense Pat. from basal stem rot of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) from peninsular Malaysia Pertanika 8 425–428
Miller RNG. The characterisation of Ganoderma populations in oil palm cropping systems. Ph.D. thesis. University of Reading, UK 1995.
Miller RNG, Holderness M, Bridge PD, Paterson RRM, Sariah M, Hussin MZ. A multidisciplinary approach to the characterization Ganoderma in oil palm cropping systems. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ganoderma, Vancouver, Canada, 1994, 1995.
Idris AS. Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Malaysia. Factors associated with variation in disease severity. Ph.D. thesis. Wye College, The University of London, UK, 1999.
FR Sanderson CA Pilotti (1997) ArticleTitleGanoderma basal stem rot: an enigma or just time to rethink the old problem The Planter, Kuala Lumpur 73 489–493
CA Pilotti FR Sanderson EAB Aitken (2002) ArticleTitleSexuality and interactions of monokaryotic and dikaryotic mycelia of G. boninense. Mycol Res 106 IssueID11 1315–1322
Pilotti CA, Sanderson FR, Aitken EAB. Genetic structure of a population of Ganoderma boninense on oil palm. Plant Pathol, in press.
Pilotti CA, Sanderson FR, Aitken EAB. Morphological variation and host range of two Ganoderma species from Papua New Guinea. Mycopathologia, in press.
WL Kovach (1993) MVSP. A Multivariate Statistical Package for IBM-PCs Kovach Computing Services Wales, UK
RL Steyaert (1975) ArticleTitleThe concept and circumscription of Ganoderma tornatum Trans Br Mycol Soc 65 451–467
RL Steyaert (1977) ArticleTitleBasidiospores of two Ganoderma species and others of two related genera under the scanning electron microscope Kew Bull 31 437–442
RL Steyaert (1967) ArticleTitleLes Ganoderma palmicoles Bull Jardin Bot Nat Bel 37 485–492
Pilotti CA. The population structure of Ganoderma boninense in first generation oil palm plantings. In: Proceedings of the International Congress of Plant Pathol 2003, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Ariffin D, Idris AS, Azahari M. Spread of Ganoderma boninense and vegetative compatibility studies of a single field palm isolates. In: Proceedings of the 1996 PORIM International Palm Oil Congress 1996, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
TE Chase RC Ullrich (1983) ArticleTitleSexuality, distribution and dispersal of Heterobasidion annosum in pine plantations in Vermont Mycologia 75 825–831
J Rishbeth (1988) ArticleTitleStump infection by Armillaria in first rotation conifers Eur J Forest Pathol 18 401–408
J Stenlid (1985) ArticleTitlePopulation structure of Heterobasidium annosum as determined by somatic incompatibility, sexual incompatibility and isoenzyme patterns Can J Bot 63 1153–1159
RC Ullrich (1977) ArticleTitleNatural distribution of incompatibility factors of basidiomycetous fungi Mycologia 69 714–719
JB Anderson RC Ullrich (1979) ArticleTitleBiological species of Armillaria mellea in North America Mycologia 71 402–414
NK Todd ADM Rayner (1978) ArticleTitleGenetic structure of a natural population of Coriolus versicolor (L. ex. Fr.) Quel Gen Res Cambridge 32 55–65
E Kay R Vigalys (1992) ArticleTitleSpatial distribution and genetic relationships in a natural population of the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus Mycologia 84 173–182
TY James R Vigalys (2001) ArticleTitleAbundance and diversity of Schizophyllum commune spore clouds in the Caribbean detected by selective sampling Mol Ecol 10 471–479
PNG OPRA Annual Report 2002. PNG Oil Palm Research Association. Dami: PNG.
About this article
Cite this article
Pilotti, C. Stem rots of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense: Pathogen biology and epidemiology. Mycopathologia 159, 129–137 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046-004-4435-3
- stem rots