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Comparison of X–T and X–X co-simulation techniques applied on railway dynamics


Co-simulation techniques start to be of high interest when building a vehicle–track–soil model dedicated to ground-borne vibrations’ assessment. If this model includes a relatively comprehensive representation of the vehicle, track, and soil subdomains, different solvers may be used to simulate them. In this paper, the vehicle and track are modeled in a multibody dedicated software and the soil is simulated in a finite element analysis software. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of displacement/force and displacement/displacement co-simulation types in the case of coupled railway-soil dynamics. Both Jacobi and Gauß–Seidel approaches are used without iterations and using a zeroth-order hold extrapolation of the coupling variables. The modeling of the subdomains is described and an implementation of the co-simulation is proposed. By observing the ground and vehicle motions, as well as the peak particle velocity of the soil with respect to the distance from the track, it is stated that the choice of displacement/force or displacement/displacement co-simulation type has a significant effect on the results. Indeed, while the displacement/displacement type offers a larger stability region than the displacement/force type, the accuracy of the results is more heavily affected.

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Correspondence to Bryan Olivier.

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Olivier, B., Verlinden, O. & Kouroussis, G. Comparison of X–T and X–X co-simulation techniques applied on railway dynamics. Multibody Syst Dyn 55, 39–56 (2022).

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  • Solver-coupling
  • Co-simulation
  • Railway dynamics
  • Finite element analysis
  • Ground-borne vibrations