The crashworthiness analysis of road vehicles requires detailed data of the vehicles that the automotive manufacturers are, generally, unable to release due to commercial or legal restrictions. In the development of passive safety subsystems or substructures, the overall crash response of a vehicle model used to support it, must mimic that of the real vehicle; if this exists, regardless of any particular constructive detail of its structure provided that it is not located in the vicinity of such subsystem. This work proposes a methodology for the development of multibody models of road vehicles, for passive safety analysis, which include all general structural and mechanical features of real vehicles and start by exhibiting impact dynamic responses similar to the top of line vehicles. These vehicle models, designated as generic, do not require the knowledge of most of the particular details of the design of the real vehicle, which the manufacturers are unable to release, but can be adjusted to have crash responses similar to those of the real vehicle. Based on an existing finite element model of a car, which has all constructive features of vehicles of the chosen class, a multibody model is built applying the plastic hinge approach. By using a selected number of crash scenarios, defined in international standards such as the EuroNCAP, selected parameters of the vehicle multibody model are adjusted to ensure a good correlation between its impact responses and those of the finite element model. The crash responses are measured in terms of structural deformations, velocities and accelerations, occupant injury measures and structural energy absorption capabilities. Assuming that the plastic hinge constitutive equations of the multibody model are not exactly known, their parameters are used here as the multibody vehicle model that are adjusted. The methodology proposed is demonstrated by its application to the identification of the vehicle multibody model of a large family car for which the reference vehicle is available as a detailed finite element model.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Nikravesh, P.E.: Computer-Aided Analysis of Mechanical Systems. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1988)
Ambrósio, J.: Crashworthiness: Energy Management and Occupant Protection. Springer, Wien (2001)
Ambrósio, J.: Crash analysis and dynamical behavior of light road and rail vehicles. Veh. Syst. Dyn. 43(6–7), 385–411 (2005)
Pereira, M., Ambrósio, J.: Crashworthiness analysis and design using rigid-flexible multibody dynamics with application to train vehicles. Int. J. Num. Method. Eng. 40, 655–687 (1997)
Petzold, L.: Computational challenges in mechanical systems simulation, in computer-aided analysis of rigid and flexible mechanical systems. In: Pereira, M., Ambrósio, J. (eds.) Computer Aided Analysis of Rigid and Flexible Mechanical Systems, pp. 483–499. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht (1994)
Augusta Neto, M., Ambrósio, J.: Stabilization methods for the integration of differential–algebraic equations in the presence of redundant constraints. Multibody Syst. Dyn. 10(1), 81–105 (2003)
Lankarani, H.M., Nikravesh, P.E.: A contact force model with hysteresis damping for impact analysis of multibody systems. J. Mech. Des. 112, 369–376 (1990)
Winmer, A.: Einfluss der Lelastungsgeschwindigkeit auf das Festigkeits und Verformungsverhalten am Beispiel von Kraftfarhzeugen. Automob. Z. 77(10), 281–286 (1977)
Nikravesh, P.E., Chung, I.S., Benedict, R.L.: Plastic hinge approach to vehicle crash simulation. Comput. Struct. 16(1–4), 395–400 (1983)
Sousa, L., Veríssimo, P., Ambrósio, J.: Generic multi-body car models. Technical Report IST—APROSYS-SP7, Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal (2006)
MECALOG: RADIOSS Theory Manual version 4.4. Paris, France (2005)
Puppini, R., Diez, M., Avalle, M., Ciglaric, I., Feist, F.: Generic car (FE) models for categories super minis, small family cars, large family executive cars, MPV and heavy vehicle. Technical Report APROSYS AP-SP7-0029-A (2005)
ABAQUS: ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. ABAQUS Inc. (2004)
MADYMO: Madymo Manuals, version 6.2. TNO MADYMO BV., Delft, The Netherlands (2004)
van der Zweep, C.D., Kellendonk, G.: Evaluation of accident parameters in a numerical fleet for assessing compatibility. Paper No. 2005-01-0707. SAE 2005 Trans. J. Passeng. Cars—Mech. Syst. (2005)
Schmitt, K.-U., Niederer, P.F., Walz, F.: Trauma, Biomechanics Introduction to Accidental Injury. Springer, Berlin (2004)
Mooi, H.G., Huibers, J.H.A.M.: Simple and effective lumped mass model for determining kinetics and dynamics of car-to-car crashes. In: Proceedings of the International Crashworthiness Conference, Detroit, Michigan, 9–11 September 1998
van der Zweep, C.D., Kellendonk, G., Lemmen, P.: Evaluation of fleet systems model for vehicle compatibility. Int. J. Crashworth. 10(5), 483–494 (2005)
Mooi, H.G., Nastic, T., Huibers, J.H.A.M.: Modelling and optimization of car-to-car compatibility. In: VDI berichte Nr 1471, Delft, The Netherlands, pp. 239–255 (1999)
Gielen, A.W.J., Mooi, H.G., Huibers, J.H.A.M.: An optimization methodology for improving car-to-car compatibility. ImechE Trans. C567/047/2000 (2000)
About this article
Cite this article
Sousa, L., Veríssimo, P. & Ambrósio, J. Development of generic multibody road vehicle models for crashworthiness. Multibody Syst Dyn 19, 133–158 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11044-007-9093-z