Skip to main content

A selective bitplane image encryption scheme using chaotic maps


Partial encryption is one of the viable solutions for low power, high speed, real time secure multimedia communication. In this paper, a chaotic tent map based selective bitplane encryption technique is proposed for both gray scale and color images. After decomposing the original image into eight bitplanes, each bitplane is classified into either significant or non-significant category by defining a flexible threshold value of 0.3, deduced experimentally. Following this segregation, only the significant bitplanes are encrypted with the key stream sequences generated by a chaos-based pseudo-random binary number generator. The cipher image is then transmitted through public channel. The proposed scheme has three important contributions v.i.z. a) determination of significant bitplanes, b) encryption of only the significant bitplanes leading to reduction in computational complexity and c) elimination of the need for separate channel for transmitting the information about the significant bitplanes. It is shown that the proposed partial encryption scheme saves around 35% computation on the image database used here. Different types of attacks against this scheme are also analysed to show the robustness of this approach.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17


  1. Abu-Marie W, Gutub A, Abu-Mansour H (2010) Image based steganography using truth table based and determinate array on RGB indicator. Int J Signal Image Process (IJSIP) 1(3):196–204

    Google Scholar 

  2. Al-Otaibi NA, Gutub A (2014) 2-leyer security system for hiding sensitive text data on personal computers. Lect Notes Inf Theory 2(2):151–157. Engineering and Technology Publishing

    Google Scholar 

  3. Al-Otaibi NA, Gutub A (2014) Flexible stego-system for hiding text in images of personal computers based on user security priority. In: Proceedings of international conference on advanced engineering technologies (AET-2014). Dubai, pp 250–256

  4. Alassaf N, Alkazemi B, Gutub A (2017) Applicable light-weight cryptography to secure medical data in IoT systems. J Res Eng Appl Sci (JREAS) 2(2):50–58

    Google Scholar 

  5. Alsaedi M (2017) Colored image encryption and decryption using multi-chaos 2D quadratic strange attractors and matrix transformations. Multimed Tools Appl 76 (22):24527–24547. ISSN: 1573-7721

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Alsmirat MA, Al-Alem F, Al-Ayyoub M, Jararweh Y, Gupta B (2018) Impact of digital fingerprint image quality on the fingerprint recognition accuracy, multimedia tools and applications.

  7. Arroyo D, Alvarez G, Fernandez V (2008) On the inadequacy of the logistic map for cryptographic applications. In: Proceedings X reunión española sobre criptología y Seguridad de la información (X RECSI). ISBN 978–84–691–5158–7. Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, pp 77–82

  8. Bourbakis N, Alexopoulos C (1992) Picture data encryption using SCAN patterns. Pattern Recogn 25(6):567–581

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Box GEP, Jenkins GM, Reinsel GC (1994) Time series analysis: forecasting and control, 3rd edn. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  10. Chen G, Mao Y, Chui CK (2004) A symmetric image encryption based on 3D chaotic maps. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 21(3):749–761

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  11. Chen X, Huang X, Li J, Ma J, Lou W, Wong DS (2015) New algorithms for secure outsourcing of large-scale systems of linear equations. IEEE Trans Inf Forens Secur 10(1):69–78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Granado JM, Vega-Rodriguez MA, Sanchez-Perez JM, Gomez-Pulido JA (2009) IDEA and AES, two cryptographic algorithms implemented using partial and dynamic reconfiguration. Microelectron J 40(6):1032–1040

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Gutub A, Al-Qahtani A, Tabakh A (2009) Triple-A: secure RGB image steganography based on randomization. In: 2009 IEEE/ACS International conference on computer systems and applications. Rabat, pp 400-403.

  14. Gutub A, Al-Juaid N, Khan E Counting-based secret sharing technique for multimedia applications, multimedia tools and applications. Springer.

  15. Huang X (2012) Image encryption algorithm using chaotic Chebyshev generator. Nonlinear Dyn 67:2411–2417

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  16. Huang Z, Liu S, Mao X, Chen K, Li J (2017) Insight of the protection for data security under selective opening attacks. Inf Sci 412–413:223–241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Hussain I, Shah T, Gondol MA (2012) Image encryption algorithm based on PGL(2,GF(28)) S-boxes and TD-ERCS chaotic sequence. Nonlinear Dyn

  18. IEEE Computer Society (1985) IEEE Standard for binary floating-point arithmetic. In: ANSI/IEEE STANDARD 754-1985, pp. 0_1-.

  19. Jin X, Yin S, Liu N, Li X, Zhao G, Ge S (2017) Color image encryption in non-rgb color space, multimedia tools & applications, ISSN: 1573-7721, pp 1–23

  20. Jolfaei A, Mirghadri A (2011) Image encryption using chaos and block cipher. Comput Inf Sci 4(1):172–185

    Google Scholar 

  21. Khan F, Gutub A (2007) Message concealment techniques using image based steganography. In: 4Th IEEE GCC conference and exhibition, gulf international convention centre. Manamah

  22. Krikor L, Baba S, Arif T, Shaaban Z (2009) Image encryption using DCT and stream cipher. Euro J Publ Inc 32(1):48–58. ISSN 1450-216X, EuroJournals Publishing Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Kuppusamy K, Thamodaran K (2012) Optimized partial image encryption scheme using PSO. In: Proceedings international conference on pattern recognition, informatics and medical engineering, pp 236–241

  24. Larson EC, Chandler DM (2010) Most apparent distortion: full-reference image quality assessment and the role of strategy. J Electron Imag, 19:1

  25. Li J, Huang X, Li J, Chen X, Xiang Y (2014) Securely outsourcing attribute-based encryption with checkability. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 25 (8):2201–2210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Li J, Li J, Chen X, Jia C, Lou W (2015) Identity-based encryption with outsourced revocation in cloud computing. IEEE Trans Comput 64(2):425–437

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  27. Li J, Li YK, Chen X, Lee PPC, Lou W (2015) A hybrid cloud approach for secure authorized deduplication. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 26(5):1206–1216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Li P, Li J, Huang Z, Li T, Gao C-Z, Yiu S-M, Chen K (2017) Multi-key privacy-preserving deep learning in cloud computing. Futur Gener Comput Syst 74:76–85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Marsaglia G (1995) DIEHARD Statistical tests, available at∼geo/diehard.html. Florida State University

  30. Menezes AJ, Oorschot PCV, Vanstone SA (1997) Handbook of applied cryptography. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  31. Mitra A, Palit S, Chaudhuri BB, Kundu S, Pathak S, Dutta R (2008) A new partial image encryption method for secured multimedia communication. In: Proceedings Workshop on mobile systems (WoMS), WBUT. Kolkata, India, 125–131, Jul

  32. Panduranga HT, Naveen Kumar SK (2012) Advanced partial image encryption using two-stage hill cipher technique, vol 60

  33. Panduranga HT, Naveen S, Kiran K (2013) Partial image encryption using block wise shuffling and chaotic map. In: Proceedings of IEEE int. conf. on optical imaging sensor and security. India, 1–5, Jul

  34. Parameshachari BD, Soyjaudah KMS, Devi KAS (2013) Secure transmission of an image using partial encryption based algorithm. Int J Comput Appl 63(16):33–36. ISSN:0975-8887

    Google Scholar 

  35. Pareek NK, Patidar V, Sud KK (2010) A random bit generator using chaotic maps. Int J Netw Secur 10(1):32–38

    Google Scholar 

  36. Parvez MT, Gutub A (2008) RGB intensity based variable-bits image steganography. In: 3rd IEEE Asia-Pacific services computing conference. Yilan, pp 1322–1327.

  37. Parvez MT, Gutub A (2011) Vibrant color image steganography using channel differences and secret data distribution. Kuwait J Sci Eng (KJSE) 38(1B):127–142

    Google Scholar 

  38. Podesser M, Schmidt HP, Uhl A (2002) Selective bitplane encryption for secure transmission of image data in mobile environments. In: Proceedings of 5th nordic signal processing symposium (NORSIG’2002). Norway

  39. Rakhi PR (2015) Partial image encryption using block shuffling and affine transform. Int J Comput Sci Inf Technol 6(3):2204–2207

    Google Scholar 

  40. Rukhin A, et al. (2010) A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications, information technology laboratory. National Institute of Standards and Technology

  41. Sasidharan S, Philip DS (2011) Fast partial image encryption scheme with wavelet transform and Rc4. Int J Adv Eng Technol 1(4):322–33. ISSN: 2231-1963

    Google Scholar 

  42. Som S, Kotal A, Mitra A, Palit S, Chaudhuri BB (2014) A chaos based partial image encryption scheme. InL Proceedings 2nd IEEE int. conf. on business & information management, national institute of technology. Durgapur, India, 58–63, Jan

  43. Uhl A, Pommer A (2005) Image and video encryption. From digital rights management to secured personal communication, advances in information security, vol 15. Springer

  44. Wang X, Guo K (2014) A new image alternate encryption algorithm based on chaotic map. Nonlinear Dyn 76:1943–1950

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Wang X, Xu D (2013) A novel image encryption scheme based on Brownian motion and PWLCM chaotic system. Nonlinear Dyn 75:345–353

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Wang X, Xu D (2015) A novel image encryption scheme using chaos and Langton’s Ant cellular automaton. Nonlinear Dyn 79:2449–2456

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  47. Wang X, Yang L, Liu R, Kadir A (2010) A chaotic image encryption algorithm based on perceptron model. Nonlinear Dyn 62(3):615–621

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  48. Yen JC, Guo JI (1999) A new image encryption algorithm and its VLSI architecture. In: Proceedings of IEEE workshop on signal processing systems, pp 430–437

  49. Yu C, Li J, Li X, Ren X, Gupta BB (2018) Four-image encryption scheme based on quaternion Fresnel transform, chaos and computer generated hologram, vol 77

  50. Zhang X, Wang X (2013) Chaos-based partial encryption of SPIHT coded color images. Signal Process 93:2422–2431

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sukalyan Som.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Som, S., Mitra, A., Palit, S. et al. A selective bitplane image encryption scheme using chaotic maps. Multimed Tools Appl 78, 10373–10400 (2019).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Partial image encryption
  • Auto-correlation function
  • Bitplane
  • Tent map
  • Uniformity test
  • Correlation coefficient
  • Key sensitivity
  • Differential attack
  • Cropping attack
  • Replacement attack