Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 78, Issue 6, pp 7097–7124 | Cite as

HVS-based scalable image watermarking

A novel approach to image copyright protection against scalable compression
  • Mehran Deljavan Amiri
  • Majid MeghdadiEmail author
  • Ali Amiri


This paper proposes a novel human vision system based, spread spectrum method to scalable image watermarking. A scalable decomposition of the watermark is spread into the entire frequency sub-bands of the wavelet decomposed image. At each wavelet sub-band, the watermark data are inserted into the selected coefficients of the sub-band in a manner that the watermark embedding visual artifact occurs in the highly textured, highly contrasted and very dark/bright areas of the image. In the lowest frequency sub-band of wavelet transform, the coefficients are selected by independent analysis of texture, contrast and luminance information. In high frequency sub-bands, the coefficient selection is done by analyzing coefficients amplitude and local entropy. The experimental results show that the watermarked test images are highly transparent and robust against scalable wavelet-based image coding even at very low bit-rate coding. The proposed approach can guarantee content authentication for scalable coded images, especially on heterogeneous networks which different users with different process capabilities and network access bandwidth use unique multimedia sources.


Data hiding Scalable watermarking Image compression Scalability Human vision system DWT coding 



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehran Deljavan Amiri
    • 1
  • Majid Meghdadi
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ali Amiri
    • 2
  1. 1.Ph.D. Candidate in Artificial IntelligenceUniversity of ZanjanZanjanIran
  2. 2.Assistant Professor at Computer Engineering DepartmentUniversity of ZanjanZanjanIran

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