Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 77, Issue 20, pp 27181–27214 | Cite as

Hybrid blind robust image watermarking technique based on DFT-DCT and Arnold transform

  • Mohamed HamidiEmail author
  • Mohamed El Haziti
  • Hocine Cherifi
  • Mohammed El Hassouni


In this paper, a robust blind image watermarking method is proposed for copyright protection of digital images. This hybrid method relies on combining two well-known transforms that are the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and the discrete cosine transform (DCT). The motivation behind this combination is to enhance the imperceptibility and the robustness. The imperceptibility requirement is achieved by using magnitudes of DFT coefficients while the robustness improvement is ensured by applying DCT to the DFT coefficients magnitude. The watermark is embedded by modifying the coefficients of the middle band of the DCT using a secret key. The security of the proposed method is enhanced by applying Arnold transform (AT) to the watermark before embedding. Experiments were conducted on natural and textured images. Results show that, compared with state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method is robust to a wide range of attacks while preserving high imperceptibility.


Image watermarking Copyright protection Hybrid method Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) Discrete cosine transform (DCT) Arnold transform 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LRIT-CNRST URAC 29, Rabat IT Center, Faculty of SciencesMohammed V UniversityRabatMorocco
  2. 2.LRIT-CNRST URAC 29, Rabat IT Center, ESTMohammed V UniversityRabatMorocco
  3. 3.Laboratoire Electronique, Informatique et Image (Le2i) UMR 6306 CNRSUniversity of BurgundyDijonFrance
  4. 4.LRIT-CNRST URAC 29, Rabat IT Center, FLSHMohammed V UniversityRabatMorocco

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