Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 77, Issue 7, pp 8043–8060 | Cite as

Genuine reversible data hiding technology using compensation for H.264 bitstreams

  • Hyunjung Kim
  • Sang-ug Kang


Reversible data hiding technologies have been considered largely impractical because those are, in most cases, applicable to raw video data rather than prevailing compressed data. Even though, many algorithms have been recently developed in the compressed video domain, most of them cannot guarantee the reversibility of cover video due to the lossy characteristics of video compression standards. We suggest completely practical data hiding scheme for H.264 baseline bitstream by achieving genuine reversibility for both I and P frames. Regardless of the data hiding algorithm, the proposed scheme can increase embedding payload by 66.9% and reduce computational complexity by 93%. Also, a novel compensation based difference expansion method with clever coefficient pairing strategy is proposed as a data hiding algorithm and achieved superior embedding payload vs. image quality performance. The proposed algorithm improves payload by 48.9% on average at almost the same video quality distortion.


Reversible watermarking Data hiding Video compression H.264/AVC Compensation 



This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation(NRF) of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2015R1C1A1A02037777).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceSangmyung UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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