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Windowed and distortion-compensated vector modulation for blind audio watermarking in DWT domain

Abstract

A windowed vector modulation (WVM) scheme incorporable with distortion compensation is proposed to enhance the imperceptibility and robustness of blind audio watermarking in the norm space of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain. The merits of WVM are demonstrated through performance comparison among three DWT-based watermarking methods that adaptively modulate the vectors collected from the approximation subband after 2-level DWT decomposition of audio signals. The incorporation of window weighting into modulation formulation can smooth the transitions across adjacent vectors, while the employment of distortion compensation allows the WVM to be executable using larger quantization steps without introducing additional distortion. Experiment results confirm that the perceptual quality is noticeably improved through the windowing process, and the bit error rates of retrieved watermarks are manifestly reduced after integrating WVM with distortion compensation.

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Acknowledgement

This research work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC under Grant MOST 104-2221-E-197-023.

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Correspondence to Hwai-Tsu Hu.

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Hu, HT., Chang, JR. & Hsu, LY. Windowed and distortion-compensated vector modulation for blind audio watermarking in DWT domain. Multimed Tools Appl 76, 26723–26743 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-016-4202-8

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-016-4202-8

Keywords

  • Blind audio watermarking
  • Windowed vector modulation
  • Distortion compensation
  • Discrete wavelet transform
  • Rational dither modulation