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An algorithm for robust image watermarking based on the DCT and Zernike moments

Abstract

An image watermarking scheme in the 2D DCT domain is proposed by exploring the advantages of using Zernike moments. Zernike transform has been used in image processing applications such as image recognition, authentication, protection, etc. Here, we propose to use the Zernike moments of the DCT transform to provide an efficient watermarking method. Particularly, the novelty of the proposed approach relies on the method for selection of features that will enable both preserving the image quality and robustness to attacks. Also, a criterion for selection of image blocks suitable for watermarking is given. It is based on the 1-norm of Zernike moments. The efficiency of the proposed watermarking algorithm is proved on several examples considering different types of attacks (compression, noise, filtering, geometrical attacks).

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Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the Montenegrin Ministry of Science, project grant funded by the World Bank loan: CS-ICT “New ICT Compressive sensing based trends applied to: multimedia, biomedicine and communications”.

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Correspondence to Budimir Lutovac.

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Lutovac, B., Daković, M., Stanković, S. et al. An algorithm for robust image watermarking based on the DCT and Zernike moments. Multimed Tools Appl 76, 23333–23352 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-016-4127-2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-016-4127-2

Keywords

  • Image watermarking
  • Region clasification
  • Zernike moments
  • 2D DCT transform
  • Image quality