Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 8, pp 10407–10423 | Cite as

Bas-relief generation from face photograph based on facial feature enhancement

  • Hai Thien To
  • Bong-Soo Sohn


This paper describes a novel method for generating a bas-relief surface from the photographic image of a human face. One of the simplest methods is to take each pixel brightness as a depth value and use it to elevate the resulting surface. Although this approach can generate a bas-relief surface with realistic textures, it has the disadvantage of generating erroneous 3D depth. This problem is especially serious in the areas of facial features, such as hair, eyes, eyebrows, nose, and lips, because they are often composed of dark pixel values, and hence make the corresponding area sunken on the resulting surface. Our main contribution is to resolve this problem by detecting the facial features and making them protrude by adjusting the brightness values of the areas. The experimental results show that our method generates realistic and natural looking bas-relief surfaces that represent more accurate 3D depth, especially in the areas of facial features.


Computer graphics Bas-relief 3D printing 


  1. 1.
    Alexa M, Matusik W (2010) Reliefs as images. ACM Trans Graph 29(4):60–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cignoni P, Montani C, Scopigno R (1997) Computer-assisted generation of bas-and high-reliefs. J Graph Tools 2(3):15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Furferi R, Governi L, Volpe Y, Puggelli L, Vanni N, Carfagni M (2014) From 2d to 2.5 d i.e. from painting to tactile model. Graph Model 76(6):706–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gonzalez RC, Woods RE (2008) Digital image processing. Nueva JerseyGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kerber J, Belyaev A, Seidel H-P (2007) Feature preserving depth compression of range images. In: Proceedings of the 23rd spring conference on computer graphics. ACM, p 101–105Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kerber J, Tevs A, Belyaev A, Zayer R, Seidel H-P (2009) Feature sensitive bas relief generation. In: Shape modeling and applications, 2009. SMI 2009. IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, p 148–154Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li Z, Wang S, Yu J, Ma K-L (2012) Restoration of brick and stone relief from single rubbing images. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 18(2):177–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Otsu N (1975) A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms. Automatica 11(285–296):23–27Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Patil CS, Patil AJ (2013) A review paper on facial detection technique using pixel and color segmentation. Int J Comput Appl 62(1)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reichinger A, Maierhofer S, Purgathofer W (2011) High-quality tactile paintings. J Comput Cult Herit 4(2):5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Song W, Belyaev A, Seidel H-P (2007) Automatic generation of bas-reliefs from 3d shapes. In: Shape modeling and applications, 2007. SMI’07. IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, p 211–214Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sun X, Rosin PL, Martin RR, Langbein FC (2009) Bas-relief generation using adaptive histogram equalization. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 15(4):642–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tanaka M (2014) Face parts detectionGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    To HT, Sohn B-S (2016) Bas-relief generation from face photograph based on facial feature detection. In: HCI Korea ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weyrich, Deng J, Barnes C, Rusinkiewicz S, Finkelstein A (2007) Digital bas-relief from 3d scenes. ACM Trans Graph 26(3):32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wu J, Martin RR, Rosin PL, Sun X-F, Langbein FC, Lai Y-K, David Marshall A, Liu Y-H (2013) Making bas-reliefs from photographs of human faces. Comput Aided Des 45(3):671–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zeng Q, Martin RR, Wang L, Quinn JA, Sun Y, Tu C (2014) Region-based bas-relief generation from a single image. Graph Model 76(3):140–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang R, Tsai P-S, Cryer JE, Shah M (1999) Shape-fromshading: a survey. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 21(8):690–706CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang Y-W, Zhou Y-Q, Zhao X-F, Yu G (2013) Real-time bas-relief generation from a 3d mesh. Graph Model 75(1):2–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computer Science and EngineeringChung-Ang UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations