Advertisement

Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 11, pp 13681–13701 | Cite as

An image encryption algorithm based on DNA sequence operations and cellular neural network

  • Benyamin Norouzi
  • Sattar Mirzakuchaki
Article

Abstract

This paper presents a new way of image encryption based on biologic DNA sequence operations and Cellular Neural Network (CNN), which consists of three processes; bit-substitution, key stream generation process, and diffusion process. Firstly, a plain-image is equally divided into four sub-images and a DNA sequence matrix of each sub-image is obtained. Then we employed the hamming distance (between DNA sequences) and DNA sequence operation to encrypt each DNA sub-image. The second process is a pseudo-random key stream generator based on Cellular Neural Network. The parameters and initial conditions of the CNN system are derived using a 256 bit-long external secret key by applying some algebraic transformations to the key. The original key stream is related to the plain-image which increases the level of security and key sensitivity of the proposed algorithm. In the final process, we use the chaotic sequences generated by CNN to modify the pixel gray level values and crack the strong correlations between adjacent pixels of an image simultaneously. This feature will significantly increase plaintext sensitivity. Moreover, in order to reach higher security and higher complexity, the proposed method employs the image size in key stream generation process. The experimental results reveal that the new image encryption algorithm has the advantages of large key space (2256), high security, high sensitivity (Number of Pixels Change Rate: NPCR >99.6201 %, Unified Average Changing Intensity: UACI >33.5065 %), and high entropy (> 7.9975). Also, the distribution of gray level values of the encrypted image has a semi-random behavior.

Keywords

Image encryption DNA operations Cellular neural network Bit-substitution 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Editor, the anonymous Referees, and Shirin Saberian for their valuable comments and suggestions to improve this paper.

References

  1. 1.
    Akhshani A, Behnia S, Akhavan A, Hassan HA, Hassan Z (2010) A novel scheme for image encryption based on 2D piecewise chaotic maps. J Opt Commun 283:3259–3266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Belazi A, Hermassi H, Rhouma R, Belghith S (2014) Algebraic analysis of a RGB image encryption algorithm based on DNA encoding and chaotic map. Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics. doi: 10.1007/s11071-014-1263-y
  3. 3.
    Chen G, Mao Y, Chui C (2004) A symmetric image encryption scheme based on 3D chaotic cat maps. Journal of Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 21:749–761MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chou J, Yang C, Chang H (2015) Encryption domain content-based image retrieval and convolution through a block-based transformation algorithm. Multimedia Tools and Applications. doi: 10.1007/s11042-015-2917-6
  5. 5.
    El-Latif AA, Li L, Niu X (2014) A new image encryption scheme based on cyclic elliptic curve and chaotic system. Multimedia Tools and Applications 70:1559–1584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Etemadi Borujeni S, Eshghi M (2011) Chaotic image encryption system using phase-magnitude transformation and pixel substitution. Journal of Telecommunication Systems. doi: 10.1007/s11235-011-9458-8
  7. 7.
    Gao T, Chen Z (2008) Image encryption based on a new total shuffling algorithm. Journal of Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 38:213–220MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ghebleh M, Kanso A, Noura H (2013) An image encryption scheme based on irregularly decimated chaotic maps. Image Communication, In Press, Corrected Proof, Signal ProcessingGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hermassi A, Belazi R, Rhouma, Belghith SM (2013) Security analysis of an image encryption algorithm based on a DNA addition combining with chaotic maps. Multimed Tools Appl:1–14Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huang X, Ye G (2012) An image Encryption Algorithm based on Hyper-Chaos and DNA Sequence. Multimedia Tools and Applications. doi: 10.1007/s11042-012-1331-6
  11. 11.
    Huang JJ, Hwang HE, Chen CY, Chen CM (2012) Optical multiple-image encryption based on phase encoding algorithm in the fresnel transform domain. Opt Laser Technol 44(7):2238--2244Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jain A, Rajpal N (2015) A robust image encryption algorithm resistant to attacks using DNA and chaotic logistic maps. Multimed Tools Appl. doi: 10.1007/s11042-015-2515-7
  13. 13.
    Kadir A, Hamdulla A, Guo WQ (2014) Color image encryption using skew tent map and hyper chaotic system of 6th-order CNN. Optik 125:1671–1675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kumar A, Ghose MK (2011) Extended substitution–diffusion based image cipher using chaotic standard map. Journal of Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 16:372–382MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li CQ, Li SJ, Alvarez G, Chen GR, Lo KT (2007) Cryptanalysis of two chaotic encryption schemes based on circular bit shift and XOR operations. Phys Lett A 369:23–30CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liao X, Lai S, Zhou Q (2010) A novel image encryption algorithm based on self-adaptive wave transmission. J Signal Process 90:2714–2722CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lima JB, Lima EAO, Madeiro F (2013) Image encryption based on the finite field cosine transform. Signal Process Image Commun 28(10):1537--1547Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu H, Wang X, kadir A (2012a) Image encryption using dna complementary rule and chaotic maps. Appl Soft Comput 12:1457–1466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu L, Zhang Q, Wei X (2012b) A RGB image encryption algorithm based on DNA encoding and chaos map. Comput Electr Eng 38:1240–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu Y, Tang J, Xie T (2014) Cryptanalyzing a RGB image encryption algorithm based on DNA encoding and chaos map. Opt Laser Technol 60:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mao Y, Chen G, Lian S (2004) A novel fast image encryption scheme based on the three-dimensional chaotic baker map. Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos 14(10):3613–3624MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mazloom S, Eftekhari-Moghadam AM (2009) Color image encryption based on coupled nonlinear chaotic map. Journal of Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 42:1745–1754CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Norouzi B, Mirzakuchaki S (2014) A fast color image encryption algorithm based on hyper-chaotic systems. Nonlinear Dynamics 78:995–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Norouzi B, Mirzakuchaki S (2015) Breaking a Novel Image Encryption Scheme based on an Improper Fractional-Order Chaotic System. Multimed Tools Appl. doi: 10.1007/s11042-015-3085-4
  25. 25.
    Norouzi B, Mirzakuchaki S (2016) Breaking an image encryption algorithm based on the new substitution stage with chaotic functions. Optik 127:5695–5701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Norouzi B, Mirzakuchaki S, Seyedzadeh SM, Mosavi MR (2014a) A simple, sensitive and secure image encryption algorithm based on hyperchaotic system with only one round diffusion process. Multimed Tools Appl 71(3):1469--1497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Norouzi B, Seyedzadeh SM, Mirzakuchaki S, Mosavi MR (2014b) A novel image encryption based on hash function with only two-round diffusion process. Multimedia Systems 20(1):45–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Norouzi B, Seyedzadeh SM, Mirzakuchaki S, Mosavi MR (2015) A novel image encryption based on row-column, masking and main diffusion processes with hyper chaos. Multimed Tools Appl 74:781–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Parvin Z, Seyedarabi H, Shamsi M (2014) A new secure and sensitive image encryption scheme based on new substitution with chaotic function. Multimed Tools Appl. doi: 10.1007/s11042-014-2115-y
  30. 30.
    Sam IS, Devaraj P, Bhuvaneswaran RS (2012) A novel image cipher based on mixed transformed logistic maps. Multimedia Tools and Applications 56:315–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Seyedzadeh SM, Mirzakuchaki S (2012) A fast color image encryption algorithm based on coupled two-dimensional piecewise chaotic map. J Signal Process 92:1202–1215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Seyedzadeh SM, Norouzi B, Mirzakuchaki S (2014) RGB color image encryption based on choquet fuzzy integral. J Syst Softw 97:128–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Seyedzadeh SM, Norouzi B, Mosavi MR, Mirzakuchaki S (2015) A novel color image encryption algorithm based on spatial permutation and quantum chaotic map. Nonlinear Dynamics 81:511–529MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tang Y, Wang Z, Fang J (2010) Image encryption using chaotic coupled map lattices with time-varying delays. Journal of Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 15:2456–2468MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tong X (2012) The novel bilateral–diffusion image encryption algorithm with dynamical compound chaos. The Journal of Systems and Software 85:850–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tong X, Cui M, Wang Z (2009) A new feedback image encryption scheme based on perturbation with dynamical compound chaotic sequence cipher generator. J Opt Commun 282:2722–2728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang X, Jin C (2012) Image encryption using game of life permutation and PWLCM chaotic system. J Opt Commun 285:412–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang Y, Wong KW, Liao X, Chen G (2011) A new chaos-based fast image encryption algorithm. Journal of Applied Soft Computing 11:514–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wei X, Guo L, Zhang Q, Zhang J, Lian S (2012) A novel color image encryption algorithm based on DNA sequence operation and hyper-chaotic system. J Syst Softw 85:290–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wen W (2015) Security analysis of a color image encryption scheme based on skew tent map and hyper chaotic system of 6th-order CNN against chosen-plaintext attack. Multimedia Tools and Application. doi: 10.1007/s11042-015-2464-1
  41. 41.
    Ye R (2011) A novel chaos-based image encryption scheme with an efficient permutation-diffusion mechanism. J Opt Commun 284:5290–5298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhang G, Liu Q (2011) A novel image encryption method based on total shuffling scheme. Opt Commun 284:2775–2780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhang W, Peng J, Yang H, Wei P (2005) A digital image encryption scheme based on the hybrid of cellular neural network and logistic map. Lect Notes Comput Sci 3497:860–867CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhang Q, Guo L, Wei X (2010a) Image encryption using dna addition combining with chaotic maps. Math Comput Model 52:2028–2035MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zhang Q, Wang Q, Wei X (2010b) A novel image encryption scheme based on DNA coding and multi-chaotic maps. Adv Sci Lett 3:447–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhang Q, Guo L, Wei X (2013a) A novel image fusion encryption algorithm based on DNA sequence operation and hyper-chaotic system. Optik 124:3596–3600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhang Q, Guo L, Wei X (2013b) A novel image fusion encryption algorithm based on DNA sequence operation and hyper-chaotic system. J Opt 124:3596–3600Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhang L, Han Y, Yang Y, Song M, Yan S, Tian Q (2013c) Discovering discrminative graphlets for aerial image categories recognition. IEEE Trans Image Process 22:5071–5048MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zhang D, Xiao W, Wen, Li M (2014a) Cryptanalyzing a novel image cipher based on mixed transformed logistic maps. Multimedia Tools and Applications 73:1885–1896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zhang Y, Wen W, Su M, Li M (2014b) Cryptanalyzing a novel image fusion encryption algorithm based on DNA sequence operation and hyper-chaotic system. J Opt 125:1562–1564Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zhang L, Yang Y, Gao Y, Yu Y, Wang C, Li X (2014c) A probabilistic associative model for segmenting weakly-supervised images. IEEE Trans Image Process 23(9)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zhang L, Gao Y, Xia Y, Dai Q, Li X (2015) A fine-grained image categorization system by cellet-encoded spatial pyramid modeling. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 62(1):564–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zhao J, Wang S, Chang Y, Li X (2015) A novel image encryption scheme based on an improper fractional-order chaotic system. Nonlinear Dyn. doi: 10.1007/s11071-015-1911-x
  54. 54.
    Zhen P, Zhao G, Min L, Jin X (2016) Chaos-based Image Encryption Scheme Combining DNA Coding and Entropy. Multimedia Tools and Applications 75:6303–6319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zhou N, Wang Y, Gong L, Chen X, Yang Y (2013) Single-channel color image encryption based on iterative fractional fourier transform and chaos. Opt Laser Technol 48:117--127Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zhu C (2012) A novel image encryption scheme based on improved hyperchaotic sequences. J Opt Commun 285:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electronic Research Center, School of Electrical EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations