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RDF-powered semantic video annotation tools with concept mapping to Linked Data for next-generation video indexing: a comprehensive review

Abstract

Video annotation tools are often compared in the literature, however, most reviews mix unstructured, semi-structured, and the very few structured annotation software. This paper is a comprehensive review of video annotations tools generating structured data output for video clips, regions of interest, frames, and media fragments, with a focus on Linked Data support. The tools are compared in terms of supported input and output data formats, expressivity, annotation specificity, spatial and temporal fragmentation, the concept mapping sources used for Linked Open Data (LOD) interlinking, provenance data support, and standards alignment. Practicality and usability aspects of the user interface of these tools are highlighted. Moreover, this review distinguishes extensively researched yet discontinued semantic video annotation software from promising state-of-the-art tools that show new directions in this increasingly important field.

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Notes

  1. There are also cross-media annotation tools, such as IMAS and YUMA, which provide annotations for multiple media types (see Section 3).

  2. http://vitooki.sourceforge.net/components/muvino/code/index.html

  3. http://www.exmaralda.org/en/tool/exmaralda/

  4. http://www.research.ibm.com/VideoAnnEx/

  5. https://tla.mpi.nl/tools/tla-tools/elan/

  6. http://sourceforge.net/projects/via-tool/

  7. http://www.joanneum.at/en/digital/productssolutions/sematic-video-annotation.html

  8. https://www.dimis.fim.uni-passau.de/iris/index.php?view=vanalyzer

  9. https://www.dimis.fim.uni-passau.de/MDPS/de/mitglieder/30-german-articles/forschung/projekte/33-svcat.html

  10. http://www.anvil-software.org

  11. http://schema.org/Clip

  12. http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/

  13. It is a common practice to abbreviate terms using the namespace mechanism, which relies on a prefix to eliminate long (often symbolic) URIs, such that schema: abbreviates http://schema.org/ and foaf: abbreviates http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/. For example, foaf:depicts abbreviates http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/depicts.

  14. http://wordnet-rdf.princeton.edu/ontology

  15. https://sourceforge.net/projects/texai/files/open-cyc-rdf/1.1/

  16. http://swrl.stanford.edu/ontologies/built-ins/3.3/temporal.owl

  17. http://vidont.org/vidont.ttl

  18. https://www.w3.org/TR/media-frags/

  19. In the example, concept names are written in PascalCase, role names in camelCase, and individual names in ALL CAPS, as per description logic best practices.

  20. http://dbpedia.org

  21. http://lod-cloud.net

  22. https://www.w3.org/2001/Annotea/

  23. http://advene.org

  24. http://www.ontomedia.de

  25. http://annomation.open.ac.uk

  26. http://tomayac.com/semwebvid/

  27. https://www.youtube.com

  28. https://github.com/paulweichhart/client-suite

  29. http://www.geonames.org/ontology/

  30. http://www.openannotation.org/spec/core/

  31. https://www.wikidata.org

  32. http://linkedtv.eurecom.fr/tv2rdf

  33. http://editortoolv2.linkedtv.eu

  34. http://www.openvideoannotation.org

  35. http://videojs.com

  36. http://annotatorjs.org

  37. https://github.com/andreruffert/rangeslider.js

  38. http://www.eclap.eu

  39. http://vidont.org/semvidlod/

  40. http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/

  41. http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/c035641_ISO_IEC_16448_2002%28E%29.zip

  42. http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/Ecma-267.pdf

  43. http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_ics/catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=51140

  44. http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=34228

  45. http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=39478

  46. https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1738.txt

  47. https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc5013.txt

  48. http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=52142

  49. http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/project/details.php?project_id=105

  50. https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/

  51. https://www.w3.org/TR/skos-reference/

  52. https://vimeo.com

  53. http://www.liveleak.com

  54. http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/

  55. https://www.w3.org/TR/mediaont-10/

  56. http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/

  57. http://www.openannotation.org/ns/

  58. https://www.w3.org/2011/content

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Sikos, L.F. RDF-powered semantic video annotation tools with concept mapping to Linked Data for next-generation video indexing: a comprehensive review. Multimed Tools Appl 76, 14437–14460 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-016-3705-7

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Keywords

  • Video annotation
  • Multimedia semantics
  • Spatiotemporal fragmentation
  • Video scene interpretation
  • Multimedia ontologies
  • Hypervideo application