Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 2, pp 1827–1855 | Cite as

Adaptive (k, F 1) interpolation-based hiding scheme

  • Tzu-Chuen Lu


In 2012, Lee et al. proposed an interpolation technique with neighboring pixels (INP) as the base to conceal secret information in predicted pixels. Their method can effectively predict the pixel between two neighboring pixels. However, the different lengths of secret messages caused great distortion when a large secret message was concealed in the predicted value. Therefore, the proposed scheme applies the center folding strategy to fold the secret message for reducing image distortion. Furthermore, the proposed scheme references the variance of the neighboring pixel to determine the length of the secret message for controlling image quality. The parameter pair (k, F 1) is used to categorize the variance and determine the size of the secret message hidden in each category. k is the total number of thresholds which computed based on the characteristics of each image for balancing hiding payload and image quality. F 1 is the length of the secret message for the smoothest area. The experimental results show that the embedding capacity of the proposed method is 1.5 bpp higher than that of existing methods. For the same hiding payload, the image quality of the proposed method is 1.6 dB higher than that of existing methods.


Image interpolation Semi-reversible information hiding Center folding Adaptive thresholds 



This study was financially supported by a Research Grant, MOST, from Taiwan’s Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST 103-2221-E-324 -014 -).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information ManagementChaoyang University of TechnologyTaichungChina

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