Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 8, pp 10599–10633 | Cite as

Information hiding in medical images: a robust medical image watermarking system for E-healthcare

  • Shabir A. Parah
  • Javaid A. Sheikh
  • Farhana Ahad
  • Nazir A. Loan
  • G. M. Bhat


Electronic transmission of the medical images is one of the primary requirements in a typical Electronic-Healthcare (E-Healthcare) system. However this transmission could be liable to hackers who may modify the whole medical image or only a part of it during transit. To guarantee the integrity of a medical image, digital watermarking is being used. This paper presents two different watermarking algorithms for medical images in transform domain. In first technique, a digital watermark and Electronic Patients Record (EPR) have been embedded in both regions; Region of Interest (ROI) and Region of Non-Interest (RONI). In second technique, Region of Interest (ROI) is kept untouched for tele-diagnosis purpose and Region of Non-Interest (RONI) is used to hide the digital watermark and EPR. In either algorithm 8 × 8 block based Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) has been used. In each 8 × 8 block two DCT coefficients are selected and their magnitudes are compared for embedding the watermark/EPR. The selected coefficients are modified by using a threshold for embedding bit a ‘0’ or bit ‘1’ of the watermark/EPR. The proposed techniques have been found robust not only to singular attacks but also to hybrid attacks. Comparison results viz-a - viz payload and robustness show that the proposed techniques perform better than some existing state of art techniques. As such the proposed algorithms could be useful for e-healthcare systems.


Region of interest Region of non interest Discrete cosine transform Robustness 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shabir A. Parah
    • 1
  • Javaid A. Sheikh
    • 1
  • Farhana Ahad
    • 1
  • Nazir A. Loan
    • 1
  • G. M. Bhat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Instrumentation TechnologyUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia

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