Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 11, pp 6403–6430 | Cite as

Broadband wireless video streaming: achieving unicast and multicast IPTV in a practical manner

  • Laith Al-Jobouri
  • Martin Fleury
  • Mohammed Ghanbari
Article

Abstract

This paper proposes a versatile IPTV video-streaming scheme that provides high-quality unicast with the aid of repair packets but still supports multicast without repair packets. Prior research on wireless multicast video streaming has addressed the risk of feedback implosion when providing adaptive Forward Error Correction (FEC). This approach has not been adopted by providers, who may either prefer unicast streaming or employ a sufficient level of application-layer FEC to avoid the need for adaptation. Instead in this paper, an adaptive, unicast rateless channel-coding scheme is also run in multicast mode. The paper demonstrates the method and the operating conditions for such a joint unicast/multicast service in terms of data rates and suitable video-content type. Data-partitioned source coding with gradual decoding refresh is adopted in the given scenarios, making for a practical broadband wireless streaming scheme.

Keywords

Data partitioning IPTV Multicast Rateless channel coding Video streaming 

References

  1. 1.
    3GPP, Report for FEC selection for MBMS. Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects Meeting #27, Tokyo, Japan, TSGS#27 (05)0088, 2005Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agboma F, Liotta A (2007) Addressing user expectations in mobile content delivery. Mob Inf Syst 3(3–4):153–164Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahmad S, Hamzaoui R, Al-Akaidi M (2010) Adaptive unicast video streaming with rateless codes and feedback. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Technol 20(2):275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahmad S, Hamzaoui R, Al-Akaidi M (2011) Unequal error protection using Fountain codes with applications to video communication. IEEE Trans Multimed 13(1):92–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Albanese A, Blomer J, Edmonds J, Luby M, Sudan M (1996) Priority encoding transmission. IEEE Trans Inf Theory 42(6):1737–1744MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ali IA, Moiron S, Fleury M, Ghanbari M (2013) Video streaming over an ad hoc network using data partitioning and path diversity. IEEE Wirel Commun 20(3):105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Al-Jobouri L, Fleury M, Ghanbari M (2011) Error-resilient IPTV for an IEEE 802.16e channel. Wirel Eng Technol 2(2):70–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Al-Jobouri L, Fleury M, Ghanbari M (2011) Protection modes for segmented video streaming over broadband wireless. Proc. IFIP/IEEE Wireless and Mobile Networking Conf., Toulouse, France, 1–5Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Al-Jobouri L, Fleury M, Ghanbari M (2012) Multicast and unicast video streaming with rateless channel-coding over wireless broadband. Proc. IEEE Consumer Commun. and Networking Conf., Las Vegas, NE, 737–741Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Al-Jobouri L, Fleury M, Ghanbari M (2012) Comprehensive protection of data-partitioned video for broadband wireless IPTV streaming. Mob Inf Syst 8(2):1–23Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Al-Suhail G, Fleury M, Al-Majeed SS (2011) Mobile video streaming over heterogeneous networks. In: Kahil I, Weippl R (eds) Innovations in mobile multimedia communications and applications: new technologies. IGI Global, Hershey, pp 175–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Andrews JG, Ghosh A, Muhamed R (2007) Fundamentals of WiMAX: understanding broadband wireless networking. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Balachandran A, Campbell AT, Kounavis ME (1997) Active filters: Delivering scalable media to mobile devices. Proc. 7th Int. Workshop Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video, St. Louis, LA, 125–134Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bing B (2010) 3D and HD broadband video networking. Artech House, BostonGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bormann C et al (2001) RObust Header Compression (ROHC): Framework and four profiles: RTP, UDP, ESP, and uncompressed. IETF RFC 3095Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Byers J, Luby M, Mitzenbacher M, Rege A (1998) A Digital Fountain approach to reliable distribution of bulk data. Proc. of ACM SIGCOMMGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cataldi P, Shatarski MP, Grangetto M, Magli E (2006) Implementation and performance evaluation of LT and Raptor codes for multimedia applications. Int. Conf. on Info. Hiding and Multimedia Signalling, Pasadena, CA, 263–266Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Côté G, Kossentini F (1999) Optimal intra coding of blocks for robust video communication over the Internet. EUROSIP J Image Commun 15(1–2):25–34Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dai J, Liu F, Li B, Li B, Liu J (2012) Collaborative caching in wireless video streaming through resource auctions. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 30(2):458–466MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dai W, Au OC, Zhu W, Wan P, Hu W, Zhou J (2014) SSIM-based rate-distortion optimization in H.264. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustic, Speech and Signal Processing, Florence, Italy, 7343–7347Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Degrande N, Laevens K, De Vleeschauwer D (2008) Increasing the user perceived quality for IPTV services. IEEE Commun Mag 46(2):94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dhondt Y, Mys S, Vermeirsch K, Van de Walle R (2007) Constrained Inter Prediction: Removing dependencies between different data partitions. Proc. of Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Visual Systems, Delft, Netherlands, 720–731Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Diot C, Levine BN, Lyles B, Kassem H, Balensiefen D (2000) Deployment issues for the IP multicast service and architecture. IEEE Netw 14(1):78–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fleury M, Ali IA, Ghanbari M (2014) Video intra coding for compression and error resilience: a review. Recent Patents Signal Process 4(1):32–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Floyd S, Jacobson V, McCanne S, Liu CG, Zhang L (1997) A reliable multicast framework for light-weight sessions and application level framing. Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Cannes, France, 342–356Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Garramone G (2013) On decoding complexity of Reed-Solomon codes on the packet erasure channel. IEEE Commun Letts 17(4):773–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hepsaydir E, Witvoet E, Binucci N, Jadhav S (2007) Enhanced MBMS in UMTS networks and Raptor codes. Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Commun., Athens, Greece, 1–5Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hua KA, Tantaoul MA, Wallapak T (2004) Video delivery technologies for large-scale deployment of multimedia applications. Proc IEEE 92(9):1439–1451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Huynh-Thu Q, Ghanbari M (2012) The accuracy of PSNR in predicting video quality for different video scenes and frame rates. Telecommun Syst 49(1):35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    IEEE, 802.16e-2005 (2005) IEEE standard for local and metropolitan Area networks. Part 16: Air interface for fixed and mobile broadband wireless access systemsGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jenkăc H, Hagenauer J, Mayer T (2006) The turbo-fountain. Eur Trans Telecomm 17(3):337–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Karp R, Luby M, Shokorallahi A (2004) Finite length analysis of LT codes. Proc. of IEEE Int. Symposium of Information TheoryGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Khan A, Sun L, Jammeh E, Ifeachor E (2010) QoE-driven adaptation scheme for video applications over wireless networks. IET Commun 4(11):1337–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kim SW, Kim SY, Kim S, Heo J (2008) Performance analysis of forward error correcting codes in IPTV. IEEE Trans Consum Electron 54(2):376–380MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Koo J, Chung J (2011) Adaptive channel control scheme to reduce channel zapping time of mobile IPTV service. IEEE Trans Consum Electron 57(2):357–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu Z, Wu Z, Liu H, Stein A (2007) A layered hybrid-ARQ scheme for scalable video multicast over wireless networks. Proc. Asilomar Conf. on Signals, Systems and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, 914–919Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu F, Li B, Zhong L, Li B, Jin H, Liao X (2012) Flash crowd in P2P live streaming systems: fundamental characteristics and design implications. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 23(7):1227–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Luby M (2002) LT codes, Proc. 43rd Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Vancouver, Canada, 271–280Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Luby M, Watson M, Gasiba T, Stockhammer T, Wu X (2006) Raptor codes for reliable download delivery in wireless broadcast systems. Proc. IEEE Consumer Commun. Networking Conf., Las Vegas, NE, 192–197Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Luby M, Gasiba T, Stockhammer T, Watson M (2007) Reliable multimedia download delivery in cellular broadcast networks. IEEE Trans Broadcast 53(1):235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Luby M, Stockhammer T, Watson M (2008) Application layer FEC in IPTV services. IEEE Commun Mag 46(5):95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    MacKay DJC (2005) Fountain codes. IET Proc Commun 152(6):1062–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Majumdar A, Sachs DG, Kozintsev IV, Ramchandran K, Yeung MM (2002) Multicast and unicast real-time video streaming over wireless LANs. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Technol 12(6):524–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    McCanne S, Jacobson V, Vetterli M (1996) Receiver-driven layered multicast. Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Stanford, CA, 117–130Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    McKay DJC (2003) Information theory, inference, and learning algorithms. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Menkovski V, Exarchakos G, Liotta A, Sánchez AC (2010) Quality of experience models for multimedia streaming. Int J Mob Comput Multimed Commun 2(4):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mitzenmacher M (2004) Digital Fountains: A survey and look forward. Proc. IEEE Info. Theory Workshop, 271–276Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mladenov T, Nooshabadi S, Kim K (2010) MBMS Raptor codes design trade-offs for IPTV. IEEE Trans Consum Electron 56(3):1264–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mladenov T, Nooshabadi S, Kim K (2010) Strategies for the design of Raptor decoding in broadcast/multicast delivery systems. IEEE Trans Consum Electron 56(2):423–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mohr AE, Riskin EA, Ladner RE (2000) Unequal loss protection: graceful degradation of image quality over packet erasure channels through forward error correction. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 18(6):819–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nazir ES, Vukobratovic D, Stankovic V (2011) Expanding window random linear codes for data partitioned H.264 video transmission over DVB-H network. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, Brussels, Belgium, 2205–2208Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nonnenmacher J, Biersack EW (1996) Reliable multicast: Where to use FEC? Proc. 5th Workshop on Protocols for High-Speed Networks, 134–138, Sophia, Antipolis, FranceGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nonnenmacher J, Lacher M, Jung M, Biersack EW, Carle G (1998) How bad is reliable multicast without local recovery? Proc IEEE INFOCOM 3:972–979Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ohm J-R, Sullivan GJ, Schwarz H, Tan TK, Wiegand T (2012) Comparison of the coding efficiency of video coding standards—including High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Technol 22(12):1669–1684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Palanki R, Yedidai J (2004) Rateless codes on noisy channels. Proc. Int. Symp. Inf. Theory, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Park S, Jeong S-H (2009) Mobile IPTV: approaches, challenges, standards and QoS support. IEEE Internet Comput 13(3):23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pérez P, Garcia N (2011) Lightweight multimedia packet prioritization model for unequal error protection. IEEE Trans Consum Electron 57(1):132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pinola J, Pentikousis K (2009) IPTV over WiMAX with MIPv6 handovers. Proc. Vehicular Technol. Conf., 1–5Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pinson MH, Wolf M (2004) A new standardized method for objectively measuring video quality. IEEE Trans Broadcast 50(3):312–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Puri R, Lee KW, Ramchandran K, Bharghavan V (2001) An integrated source transcoding and congestion control framework for video streaming in the Internet. IEEE Trans Multimed 3(1):18–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Reibman AR, Poole D (2007) Predicting packet-loss visibility using scene characteristics. Proc. Int. PacketVideo Workshop, Lausanne, Switzerland, 307–317Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Reibman AR, Vaishampayan VA, Sermadevi Y (2004) Quality monitoring of video over a packet network. IEEE Trans Multimed 6(2):327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Richardson T, Urbanke R (2001) Efficient encoding of low-density parity-check codes. IEEE Trans Inf Theory 47(2):638–656MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rizzo L (1997) On the feasibility of software FEC. DEIT Technical Report LR-970131Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rouzbeh R, Fleury M, Altaf M, Sammak H, Ghanbari M (2009) H.264 video streaming with data-partitioning and growth codes, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, Cairo, Egypt, 909–912Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sgardoni V, Nix AR (2015) Raptor code-aware link adaptation for spectrally efficient unicast video streaming over mobile broadband networks. IEEE Trans Mob Comput 14(2):401–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Shokorallahi A (2006) Raptor codes. IEEE Trans Inf Theory 52(6):2551–2567MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Stockhammer T, Bystrom M (2004) H.264/AVC data partitioning for mobile video communication. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, Singapore, 545–548Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tan W, Zakhor A (1999) Multicast transmission of scalable video using receiver-driven hierarchical FEC. Proc. Int. PacketVideo Workshop, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Thornburgh M (2013) Adobe’s Secure Real-Time Media Flow Protocol. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), Request for Comments (RFC) 7016Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tsai FCD et al (2006) The design and Implementation of WiMAX Module for ns-2 Simulator. Proc. of Workshop on ns2: the IP network simulator, Pisa, Italy, article no. 5Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    van Wallandael G, Van Lancker W, de Cock J, Lambert P, Macq J-F, van der Walle R (2012) Fast channel switching based on SVC in IPTV environments. IEEE Trans Broadcast 58(1):57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Vu L, Gupta I, Liang J, Nahrstedt K (2007) Measurement of a large-scale overlay for multimedia streaming. Proc. 16th Int. Symp. High Perf. Distrib. Computing, New York, NY, 241–242Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wang Z, Bovik AC, Sheikh HR, Simoncelli EP (2004) Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity. IEEE Trans Image Proc 13(4):600–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wu P-H, Hwang J-W, Pyun J-Y, Lan K-M, Chen J-R (2012) QoE-aware resource allocation for integrated surveillance system over 4G mobile networks. Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circ. Syst., Seoul, Korea, 1103–1106Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Xu XR, Myers AC, Zhang H, Yavatkar R (1997) Resilient multicast support for continuous-media applications. Proc. 7th Int. Workshop Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video, St. Louis, LA, 183–194Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zhang B, Wien M (2011) Towards robust video streaming for unicast and multicast: modeling and implementation. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Networks, Chennai, India, 30–35Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of EssexColchesterUK

Personalised recommendations