VOX system: a semantic embodied conversational agent exploiting linked data
- 289 Downloads
In the last few years, the use of ontologies has spread thanks to the irruption of the Semantic Web. They have become a crucial tool in information systems as they explicitly state the meaning of information, making it possible to share it and to achieve higher levels of interoperability. However, being knowledge representation models as they are, other fields can take advantage of their characteristics to extend their capabilities. In particular, in the context of Embodied Conversational Agents, they can be used to provide them with semantic knowledge and, therefore, enhance their intellectual skills. In this paper, we propose an approach to explore the synergies between these technologies. Thus, we have developed a multimodal ECA that exploits the knowledge provided by the Linked Data initiative to help users in their search information tasks. Based on a semantic-guided keyword search, our approach is flexible enough to: 1) deal with different Linked Data repositories and 2) handle different search/knowledge domains in a multilingual way. To illustrate the potential of our approach, we have focused on the case of DBpedia, as it mirrors the information stored in the Wikipedia, providing a semantic entry to it.
KeywordsSemantic embodied conversational agents Semantic knowledge Semantic Web
This work has been partly financied by:
The Spanish “Dirección General de Investigación, Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad”, contract number: TIN2011-24660/REPLIKANTS.
The Spanish “Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad”, CICYT projects TIN2010-21387-C02-02 and TIN2013-46238-C4-4-R.
The Spanish “Ministerio de Industria, Energía y Turismo”, contract number: AVANZA TSI-020606-2012-4/CONTSEM.
European Commission: ALFA_GAVIOTA DCI-ALA/19.09.01/10/21526/245-654/ALFAIII (2010) 149.
European Commission: 519332-LLP-1-2011-1-PT-KA3-KA3NW/SEGAN.
The DGA (Aragonese Gobern), projects INNOVA-A1-064/13 and DGA-FSE.
We thank to Guillermo Esteban, Daniel Martínez and Javier Marco Rubio for their collaboration as contracted, in the development of this project. We also want to thank Eduardo Mena for his contributions during the design and development of the SENED module.
- 2.Baader F, Calvanese D, McGuinness D, Nardi D, Patel-Scheneider P (2003) The Description Logic handbook. Theory, implementation and applications. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
- 3.Baeza-Yates RA, Ribeiro-Neto B (1999) Modern information retrieval. Addison-WesleyGoogle Scholar
- 7.Beun R.J, de Vos E, Witteman C (2003) Embodied Conversational Agents: Effects on memory performance and anthropomorphisation. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Intelligent Agents (IVA’03), Kloster Irsee (Germany). Springer, pp 315–319Google Scholar
- 10.Bobed C, Esteban G, Mena E (2013) Enabling keyword search on Linked Data repositories: An ontology-based approach. International Journal of Knowledge-based and Intelligent Engineering Systems 17(1):67–77Google Scholar
- 11.Breuing A (2010) Improving human-agent conversations by accessing contextual knowledge from Wikipedia. In: Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology (WI-IAT’10), Toronto (Canada). IEEE Computer Society Press, pp 428–431Google Scholar
- 12.Cassell J (2001) Embodied conversational agents: representation and intelligence in user interfaces. AI Mag 22 (4):67–84Google Scholar
- 13.Cassell J, Sullivan J, Prevost S, Churchill EF (2000) Embodied conversational agents. MIT PressGoogle Scholar
- 14.Cerezo E, Baldasarri S, Hupont I, Serón FJ (2008) Affective computing. I-Tech Education and PublishingGoogle Scholar
- 15.Cimiano P, Kopp S (2010) Accessing the Web of Data through embodied virtual characters. Semantic Web Journal 1(1,2):83–88Google Scholar
- 16.Cochran WG, Cox GM (1957) Experimental designs, 2nd edn. WileyGoogle Scholar
- 17.Duckhorn F, Hoffmann R (2012) Using context-free grammars for embedded speech recognition with weighted finite-state transducers. In: Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association (INTERSPEECH’12), Portland (Oregon, USA), pp. 1003–1006. ISCAGoogle Scholar
- 19.García A, Lamsfus C (2005) An e-learning platform to support vocational training centers on digital security training with virtual tutors and graphical spatial metaphores. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Education (IADAT-e2005), Biarritz (France), IADAT, pp. 117–121.Google Scholar
- 23.Kalwick DJ (2006) Animating facial features & expressions, 2nd edn. ThompsonGoogle Scholar
- 24.Kim H, Park J, Oh Y, Kim S, Kim B (2012) Voice command recognition for fighter pilots using grammar tree. In: Computer Applications for Database, Education, and Ubiquitous Computing. International Conferences (EL, DTA and UNESST’12), Kangwondo (Korea). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 116–119Google Scholar
- 25.Kimura M, Kitamura Y (2006) Embodied Conversational Agent based on Semantic Web. In: Proceedings of the 9th Pacific Rim International Conference on Agent Computing and Multi-Agent Systems (PRIMA’06), Guilin (China). Springer, pp 734–741Google Scholar
- 26.Kipp M, Kipp KH, Ndiaye A, Gebhard P (2006) Evaluating the tangible interface and virtual characters in the interactive COHIBIT exhibit. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA’06), Marina Del Rey (California, USA). Springer, pp 434–444Google Scholar
- 27.Lester J, Towns S, Fitzgerald P (1999) Achieving affective impact: visual emotive communication in lifelike pedagogical agents. Int J Artif Intell Educ 10(3):278–291Google Scholar
- 29.Lopez V, Uren VS, Sabou M, Motta E (2011) Is question answering fit for the Semantic Web?: A survey. Semantic Web journal 2(2):125–155Google Scholar
- 30.Marsella SC, Johnson WL, LaBore C (2000) Interactive pedagogical drama. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Autonomous Agents (AGENTS’00), Barcelona (Spain), ACM, pp. 301–308.Google Scholar
- 31.Marsi E, van Rooden F (2007) Expressing uncertainty with a talking head in a multimodal question-answering system. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Multimodal Output Generation (MOG’07), Aberdeen (UK), CTIT, pp. 105–116.Google Scholar
- 35.Mulken SV, Andr E (1998) The persona effect: How substantial is it? In: People and Computers XIII: Proceedings of HCI’98, Sheffield (UK). Springer, pp 3–66Google Scholar
- 36.Nass C, Steuer J, Tauber ER (1994) Computers are social actors. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’94), Boston (Massachusetts, USA), ACM, pp. 72–78.Google Scholar
- 37.Ortiz A, Aizpurua I, Posada J (2003) Some techniques for avatar support of digital storytelling systems. In: Proceeding of 1st International Conference on Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment (TIDSE’03), Darmstadt (Germany). Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, pp 322–327Google Scholar
- 38.Reeves B (2000) The benefits of interactive online characters. Center for the study of language and information. Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
- 44.Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1989) Statistical methods, 8th edn. WileyGoogle Scholar
- 45.Völkel M, Krötzsch M, Vrandecic D, Haller H, Studer R (2006) Semantic Wikipedia. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on World Wide Web (WWW’06), Edinburgh (Scotland), ACM, pp. 585–594.Google Scholar
- 46.Waltinger U, Breuing A, Wachsmuth I (2011) Interfacing virtual agents with collaborative knowledge: Open domain question answering using Wikipedia-based topic models. Proceedings of the 22nd International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI’11), Barcelona (Spain). AAAI Press, pp 1896–1902Google Scholar
- 47.Wilcock G (2012)WikiTalk: A spokenWikipedia-based open-domain knowledge access system. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Question Answering for Complex Domains (QACD’12), Mumbai (India). The COLING 2012 Organizing Committee, pp. 57–70Google Scholar