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An adaptive watermarking scheme for e-government document images


This paper proposes an adaptive watermarking scheme for e-government document images. The adaptive scheme combines the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the singular value decomposition (SVD) using luminance masking. As a core of masking model in the human visual system (HVS), luminance masking is implemented to improve noise sensitivity. Genetic algorithm (GA), subsequently, is employed for the optimization of the scaling factor of the masking. Involving a number of steps, the scheme proposed through this study begins by calculating the mask of the host image using luminance masking. It is then continued by transforming the mask on each area into all frequencies domain. The watermark image, following this, is embedded by modifying the singular values of DCT-transformed host image with singular values of mask coefficient of host image and the control parameter of DCT-transformed watermark image using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The use of both the singular values and the control parameter respectively, in this case, is not only to improve the sensitivity of the watermark performance but also to avoid the false positive problem. The watermark image, afterwards, is extracted from the distorted images. The experiment results show the improved adaptive performance of the proposed scheme is in resistant to several types of attacks in comparison with the previous schemes; the adaptive performance refers to the adaptive parameter of the luminance masking functioned to improve the performance or robustness of an image from any attacks.

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We would like to thank the Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science & Technology for giving the permission to commence this thesis in the first instance, to do the necessary research work and to use departmental data.

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Correspondence to Shi-Jinn Horng.

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This work was supported in part by the National Science Council under contract number NSC-99-2916-I-011-002-A1, and it was also partially supported by the 111 Project under the grant No. 111-2-14 and One Hundred Person Project 2012, Sichuan Province.

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Horng, SJ., Rosiyadi, D., Fan, P. et al. An adaptive watermarking scheme for e-government document images. Multimed Tools Appl 72, 3085–3103 (2014).

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  • Adaptive
  • Watermarking
  • Luminance masking
  • Human visual system
  • E-government