Skip to main content

Virtual learning communities: unsolved troubles


Virtual learning communities are defined as groups where multiple organizations share learning resources and make collaborative learning activities. The Learning Management Systems (LMS) are technological platforms that allow the realization of these spaces in a cooperative cloud of e-learning. In the present paper it is highlighted that despite the fact that organizations agree to cooperate with each other, to develop virtual learning communities, the generation of these spaces are not common, for this reason the paper raises the Ho hypothesis: The LMS present inability to cooperating to generate virtual learning communities that are developed among multiple organizations. The main objective in the present work is to corroborate the hypothesis raised, for which the problem is described and also to review the state of the art is made, noticing that it appears recurrently. Besides, the degree of fitness in current LMS is valued, verifying if they possess functionalities in their architectures to enable communities in a cooperative cloud of e-learning. This paper is useful for organizations that want to develop cooperative learning tasks for their members (students, teachers, directors) given that it identifies functional requirements that LMS must attend in order to make such communities possible. In this paper the problem is divided in variables that facilitate its comprehension and allow validating the hypothesis raised.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10


  1. Advanced Distributed Learning (2004) SCORM, Sharable Content Object Reference Model. Accessed 24 May 2004

  2. Akram A, Allan R (2006) Organization of grid resources in communities. In: Proceedings of the 4th international workshop on Middleware for Grid Computing—MCG’06, vol 194, 27 November–1 December 2006, Melbourne, Australia. doi:10.1145/1186675.1186697

  3. Bleiholder J, Naumann F(2008) Data fusion. ACM Comput Surv 41(1):1–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Booth D, Hass H et al (2004) Web services architecture. W3C Working Group. Accessed 24 May 2004

  5. Chang CK, Chen GD, Li LY (2008) Constructing a community of practice to improve coursework activity. Comput Educ 50(1):235–247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Cheon E, Ahn J (2009) Virtual community 101: know your virtual community and members. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on ubiquitous information management and communication, Suwon, Korea

  7. Colace F, De Santo M, Vento M (2003) Evaluating on-line learning platforms: a case study. In: Proceedings of the 36th annual Hawaii international conference, p 9

  8. Drira K, Villemur T, Baudin V, Diaz M (2000) A multi-paradigm layered architecture for synchronous distance learning. In: Proceedings of The 26th EUROMICRO, vol 2, p 2158

  9. Ferretti S, Mirri S, Muratori LA, Roccetti M, Salomoni P (2008) E-learning 2.0: you are We-LCoME!. In: Proceedings of the 2008 international cross-disciplinary conference on web accessibility. W4A’08, vol 317, pp 116–125, Beijing, China

  10. Guo Y, Schwaninger A, Gall H (2008) An architecture for an adaptive and collaborative learning management system in aviation security. In: IEEE 17th WETICE ’08, pp 165–170

  11. Hara N, Shachaf P, Stoerger S (2009) Online communities of practice typology revisited. J Inf Sci 35(6):740–757

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Haslhofer B, Klas W (2010) A survey of techniques for achieving metadata interoperability. ACM Comput Surv 42(2):1–37

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Intapong P, Settapat S, Kaewkamnerdpong B, Achalakul T (2010) Modular web-based collaboration platform. Int J Adv Sci Technol 22:37–48

    Google Scholar 

  14. Iriberri A, Leroy G (2009) A life-cycle perspective on online community success. ACM Comput Surv 41(2):1–29

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  15. Kim KR, Moon NM (2012) Designing a social learning content management system based on learning objects. Multimed Tools Appl. doi:10.1007/s11042-012-1014-3

    Google Scholar 

  16. Liu X, El Saddik A, Georganas ND (2003) An implementable architecture of an e-learning system. In: Electrical and computer engineering, 2003. IEEE CCECE 2003, vols 2 and 4–7, pp 717–720

  17. Liu I, Chen MC, Sun YS, Wible D, Kuo C (2010) Extending the TAM model to explore the factors that affect intention to use an online learning community. Comput Educ 54(2):600–610

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Miroslav M, Milos̆ M, Dus̆an S (2011) Learning object repurposing for various multimedia platforms. Multimed Tools Appl. doi:10.1007/s11042-011-0964-1

    Google Scholar 

  19. Nagarajan P, Wiselin JG (2010) Online educational system (E-learning). IJUNESST 3(4):37–48

    Google Scholar 

  20. Rodríguez JC, García LJ, de Miguel TP, Kim T (2011) Grid of learning resources in E-learning communities. In: Proceedings of the 2011 international conference on Multimedia, Computer Graphics and Broadcasting (MulGraB 2011). Part II, CCIS 263, pp 295–299, 8–10 December, Jeju Island, Korea

  21. Simon B, Massart D, Van AF, Duval E, Brantner S, Olmedilla D, Miklós Z (2005) A simple query interface for interoperable learning repositories. Elena Project

  22. Sung J (2009) Application protocol design for collaborative learning. IJUNESST 2(4):63–74

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  23. Venugopal S, Buyya R, Ramamohanarao K (2006) A taxonomy of data grids for distributed data sharing, management, and processing. ACM Comput Surv 38(1):3

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo (AECID, Spain) through Acción Integrada MAEC-AECID MEDITERRÁNEO A1/037528/11. This work was also supported by the Security Engineering Research Center, granted by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE, Korea).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Luis Javier García Villalba.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rodríguez Ribón, J.C., García Villalba, L.J. & Kim, Th. Virtual learning communities: unsolved troubles. Multimed Tools Appl 74, 8505–8519 (2015).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Architectures for educational technology system
  • Cooperative/collaborative learning
  • Distributed learning environments
  • Learning communities