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An image watermarking based on the pdf modeling and quantization effects in the wavelet domain

Abstract

An image watermarking technique based on the concept of JPEG2000 algorithm is proposed. Biorthogonal wavelet 9/7 transform is used to provide a set of coefficients suitable for watermark embedding. The statistical properties of different subbands are analyzed in order to choose the number of decomposition levels and position of subbands, which will assure the best compromise between the watermark transparency and robustness. The JPEG2000 quantization is applied to avoid insignificant wavelet coefficients, while the remaining ones are used for watermarking. The optimal and blind watermark detection is based on the nonlinear score function and appropriate model of coefficients distribution. The performance of the proposed procedure is tested on examples with various images, showing robustness under different attacks, while maintaining high image quality.

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Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to the reviewers for useful comments and suggestions that helped to improve the quality of the paper.

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Correspondence to Irena Orović.

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Orović, I., Orlandić, M. & Stanković, S. An image watermarking based on the pdf modeling and quantization effects in the wavelet domain. Multimed Tools Appl 70, 1503–1519 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-012-1182-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-012-1182-1

Keywords

  • Image watermarking
  • Wavelet transform
  • JPEG2000 quantization
  • Optimal detection