Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 633–658 | Cite as

A case study of user immersion-based systematic design for serious heritage games

  • Shengnan Chen
  • Zhigeng PanEmail author
  • Mingmin Zhang
  • Huaqing Shen


Modern digital technologies support the preservation and transfer of cultural heritage information via devices and applications such as digital storage systems, electronic books and virtual museums. Advances in virtual and augmented reality, real-time computer graphics and computer games have made it possible to construct large virtual environments in which users may experience cultural heritage through a variety of interactions and immersions. Thus, an emerging problem is to implement an appropriate systematic design method for achieving various types of entertainment, learning and information transfer. This paper proposes two important design factors that impact on user immersion in serious heritage games: user interface space volume and subsystem sequence. The impact of the two factors on proposed systematic design methods was investigated through comparative studies by implementing a serious heritage game system on three different platforms.


Serious heritage game User immersion The Jing-Hang Grand Canal User interface space volume Subsystem sequence Systematic design 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the generous contributions to this project from the study participants, the Crystal Company in Shanghai and colleagues of the State Key Lab of CAD & CG.


  1. 1.
    Affleck J, Kvan T (2008) A virtual community as the context for discursive interpretation: a role in cultural heritage engagement. Int J Herit Stud 14(3):268–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson EF, McLoughlin L, Liarokapis F, Peters C, Petridis P, de Freitas S (2010) Developing serious games for cultural heritage: a state-of-the-art review. In: Virtual reality, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Apostolellis P, Daradoumis T (2010) Audience interactivity as leverage for effective learning in gaming environments for dome theaters. In: Sustaining TEL: from innovation to learning and practice, pp 451–456Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ary D, Jacobs LC, Razavieh A, Sorensen C (2009) Introduction to research in education. Wadsworth, BelmontGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bond TG, Fox CM (2003) Applying the Rasch model: fundamental measurement in the human sciences. J Educ Meas 40(2):185–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bonis B, Stamos J, Vosinakis S, Andreou I, Panayiotopoulos T (2009) A platform for virtual museums with personalized content. Multimedia Tools Appl 42(2):139–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boren T, Ramey J (2000) Thinking aloud: reconciling theory and practice. IEEE Trans Prof Commun 43(3):261–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bowen JP, Filippini-Fantoni S (2004) Personalization and the web from a museum perspective. In: Museums and the web, pp 63–78Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brewster SA (2005) The impact of haptic touching technology on cultural applications. In: Digital applications for cultural heritage institutions, pp 273–284Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brown E, Cairns P (2004) A grounded investigation of game immersion. In: CHI’04 extended abstracts on human factors in computing systems. ACM, New York, pp 1297–1300Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Champion E (2003) Applying game design theory to virtual heritage environments. In: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques in Australasia and South East Asia. ACM, New York, pp 273–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Champion E (2008) Otherness of place: game-based interaction and learning in virtual heritage projects. Int J Herit Stud 14(3):210–228MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Champion E (2011) Evaluating virtual heritage. In: Playing with the past, pp 177–199Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Champion E, Jacobson J (2008) Sharing the magic circle with spatially inclusive games. In: ACM SIGGRAPH ASIA 2008 educators programme. ACM, New York, p 9Google Scholar
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Chen Q (2005) The Grand Canal—on the protection of canal culture. J Hangzhou Teach Coll 3:1–5Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dede C (2009) Immersive interfaces for engagement and learning. Science 323(5910): 66–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dede C, Salzman M, Loftin RB, Ash K (2000) The design of immersive virtual learning environments: fostering deep understandings of complex scientific knowledge. In: Innovations in science and mathematics education: advanced designs for technologies of learning, pp 361–413Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Digital collections of the University of South Carolina Libraries. Retrieved from
  20. 20.
    Filippini-Fantoni S (2003) Museums with a personal touch. In: EVA 2003 London conference proceedings, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Handron K, Jacobson J (2008) Dome displays for educational games and activities in the museum and on the road. In: Entertainment computing-ICEC 2008: 7th international conference, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 25–27 September 2008: proceedings. Springer, New York, pp 217–220Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Horry Y, Anjyo KI, Arai K (1997) Tour into the picture: using a spidery mesh interface to make animation from a single image. In: Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley, New York/Reading, pp 225–232 (1997)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jacobson J (2008) Ancient architecture in virtual reality: does immersion really aid learning. PhD thesis, School of Information Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, (2008)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jacobson J (2010) Digital dome versus desktop computer in a learning game for religious architecture. In: Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), Denver, COGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jacobson J, Lewis M (2005) Game engine virtual reality with CaveUT. Computer 38(4): 79–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jacobson J, Handron K, Holden L (2009) Narrative and content combine in a learning game for virtual heritage. Distance Educ 9(2):7–26Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jacobson J, Holden L, Studios F, Toronto CA (2005) The virtual egyptian temple. In: World conference on educational media, hypermedia & telecommunications (ED-MEDIA), Montreal, Canada, pp 4531–4536Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jacobson J, Kelley M, Ellis S, Seethaller L (2005) Immersive displays for education using CaveUT. In: World conference on educational multimedia, hypermedia and telecommunication. AACE, Montreal, pp 4525–4530Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jacobson J, Le Renard M, Lugrin JL, Cavazza M (2005) The CaveUT system: immersive entertainment based on a game engine. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCHI international conference on advances in computer entertainment technology. ACM, New York, pp 184–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Just A, Rodriguez Y, Marcel S (2006) Hand posture classification and recognition using the modified census transform. In: Proceedings of the Seventh IEEE international conference on automatic face and gesture recognition (FG’06), University of Southampton, UK, pp 351–356Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu X (2007) The research summary of the canal history of China. Jilin Water Res 9:42–45 (2007)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Magnenat-Thalmann N, Kasap Z, Moussa MB (2008) Communicating with a virtual human or a skin-based robot head. In: ACM SIGGRAPH ASIA 2008 courses. ACM, New York, pp 1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Patrick E, Cosgrove D, Slavkovic A, Rode JA, Verratti T, Chiselko G (2000) Using a large projection screen as an alternative to head-mounted displays for virtual environments. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems. ACM, New York, pp 478–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pan Z, Liu G, Li Z (2007) Virtual presentation and animation of Qingming Festival by the riverside. In: Proceeding DMAMH ’07 proceedings of the second workshop on digital media and its application in museum & heritage. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, pp 102–105Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pan Z, Li Y, Zhang M, Sun C, Guo K, Tang X, Zhou SZ (2010) A real-time multi-cue hand tracking algorithm based on computer vision. In: Virtual reality conference (VR), 2010 IEEE. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stanney KM (2002) Handbook of virtual environments. Lawrence Erlbaum, HoveGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Swing E (2000) Adding immersion to collaborative tools. In: Proceedings of the fifth symposium on virtual reality modeling language (Web3D-VRML). ACM, New York, pp 63–68 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tallyn E, Koleva B, Logan B, Fielding D, Benford S, Gelmini G, Madden N (2005) Embodied reporting agents as an approach to creating narratives from live virtual worlds. In: Virtual storytelling, pp 179–188Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Weng C, Li Y, Zhang M, Guo K, Tang X, Pan Z (2010) Robust hand posture recognition integrating multi-cue hand tracking. In: Proceedings of the entertainment for education, and 5th international conference on E-learning and games. Springer, New York, pp 497–508 (2010)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhang M, Xiang N, Wang K, Pan Z, Yuan H, Liu H (2010) Avatar-based intelligent navigation for online Shanghai expo. Int J Virtual Real 9(3):39–45Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shengnan Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhigeng Pan
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Mingmin Zhang
    • 1
  • Huaqing Shen
    • 4
  1. 1.State Key Lab of CAD & CGZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Zhejiang Textile & Fashion CollegeNingboPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Digital Media & HCI Research CenterHangzhou Normal UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Art DepartmentZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations