A middleware for a tabletop procedure-aware information display
In this article, we propose a middleware that supports a developer to build tabletop information display systems. We focus on an application that projects information close to a particular object on a table. To let a user focus on his/her primary task, the information is presented based on a current phase in a procedure, which we call procedure-awareness. Here, a current phase is recognized through the utilization of objects. The proposed middleware separates information from acquisition and presentation mechanisms: sensors for operational context recognition, sensors for object identification/tracking for “nearby presentation”, and projecting information near an object. A developer just needs to write a set of rules, i.e. application logic, that represent contents for particular operational contexts. Also, by implementing appropriate handlers, any content can be provided. We present the design and the implementation of the middleware and validate the expressiveness of application logics through prototype development.
KeywordsMiddleware Procedure-awareness Augmented reality Tabletop applications
We thank Mr. Shogo Hashimoto for developing the AR-Cooking system. This work has been supported by MEXT funds for Grant-in-Aid for Division of Young Researchers and for Scientific Research (C) No. 21500117.
- 1.ARToolkit http://www.hitl.washington.edu/artoolkit/. Accessed 26 October 2010
- 2.Ballagas R, Szybalski A, Fox A (2004) Patch panel: enabling control-flow interoperability in ubicomp environments. In: Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom’04), pp 241–252Google Scholar
- 4.Cho Y, Shin K, Choi J, Choi J (2007) Toward dynamic adoption for a user’s situation information in a context-aware workflow system. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Computational Science (ICCS2007), pp 236–243Google Scholar
- 6.Fujinami K, Nakajima T (2005) Sentient artefact: acquiring user’s context through daily objects. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Smart Worlds (UISW2005), pp 335–344Google Scholar
- 7.Harter A, Hopper A, Steggles P, Ward A, Webster P (1999) The anatomy of a context-aware application. Mobile Computing and Network, pp 59–68Google Scholar
- 8.Hashimoto A, Mori N, Funatomi T, Yamakata Y, Kakusho K, Minoh M (2008) Smart kitchen: a user centric cooking support system. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems (IPMU’08), pp 848–854Google Scholar
- 9.Herrmann K, Rothermel K, Kortuem G, Dulay N (2008) Adaptable pervasive flows—an emerging technology for pervasive adaptation. In: Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops (SASOW2008), pp 108–113Google Scholar
- 11.Intille SS, Lee V, Pinhanez C (2003) Ubiquitous computing in the living room: concept sketches and an implementation of a persistent user interface. In: Adjunct Proceedings of UbiComp’03, pp 265–266Google Scholar
- 12.Jena Semantic Web Framework. http://jena.sourceforge.net/index.html. Accessed 26 October 2010.
- 13.Kaltenbrunner M, Bencina R (2007) reacTIVision: a computer-vision framework for table-based tangible interaction. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction (TEI’07), pp 69–74Google Scholar
- 14.Kawsar F, Fujinami K, Nakajima T (2008) Protoy middleware platform for smart object systems. Int J Smart Home 2(3):1–18Google Scholar
- 15.Lassila O, Swick R (1999) Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax Specification. http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-rdf-syntax-19990222/. Accessed 26 October 2010
- 17.OASIS, Web Services Business Process Execution Language Version 2.0 Primer. http://docs.oasis-open.org/wsbpel/2.0/wsbpel-v2.0.pdf. Accessed 10 January 2011.
- 18.Raskar R, Baar J, Beardsley P, Willwacher T, Rao S, Forlines C (2003) iLamps: geometrically aware and self-configuring projectors. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, pp 809–818Google Scholar
- 19.Roman M, Hess CK, Cerqueira R, Ranganathan A, Campbell RH, Nahrstedt K (2002) Gaia: a middleware infrastructure to enable active spaces. IEEE Pervasive Computing, pp 74–83Google Scholar
- 20.Sokan A, Inagawa N, Nishijo K, Shinagawa N, Egi H, Fujinami K (2010) Alerting accidents with ambiguity: a tangible tabletop application for safe and independent chemistry experiments. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing (UIC2010), pp 151–166Google Scholar
- 21.Wieland M, Kopp O, Nicklas D, Leymann F (2007) Towards context-aware workflows. In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE’07)Google Scholar
- 22.Wolf H, Herrmann K, Rothermel K (2009) Modeling dynamic context awareness for situated workflows. In: Proceedings of the Confederated International Workshops and Posters on On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems (OTM’09), pp 98–107Google Scholar