Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 881–895 | Cite as

Nonlinear dimensionality reduction for efficient and effective audio similarity searching

  • Dimitris RafailidisEmail author
  • Alexandros Nanopoulos
  • Yannis Manolopoulos


In this paper, we address the issue of nonlinear dimensionality reduction to efficiently index spectral audio similarity measures. We propose the embedding of the spectral similarity space to a low-dimensional Euclidean space. This guarantees the triangular inequality and allows the adoption of several indexing schemes. We enlighten the advantages of the proposed indexable method against recently proposed spectral similarity measures that are also indexable. Moreover, our method compares favorably to linear dimensionality reduction methods, like multidimensional scaling (MDS). The proposed method significantly reduces the computation time during the construction process compared to any audio measure and, simultaneously, minimizes the searching cost for similar songs. To the best of our knowledge, the important issue of audio similarity measures’ scalability is addressed for the first time.


Audio similarity searching Content based retrieval Music database Nonlinear dimensionality reduction 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dimitris Rafailidis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexandros Nanopoulos
    • 2
  • Yannis Manolopoulos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of InformaticsAristotle UniversityThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Institute of Computer ScienceUniversity of HildesheimHildesheimGermany

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