Visual Orionid meteor data dating back to 1944 were transformed into the standard format of the Visual Meteor Data Base (VMDB) of the International Meteor Organization (IMO) for systematic analysis. The strong 2006 Orionid return with a very low population index (r = 1.6) and a peak ZHR of 60 (about 2.5 of the average peak strength) resembled meteor showers connected with the returns of resonant meteoroids. An investigation of data dating back to 1928 yielded similar rate enhancements in 1936, further supporting the assumption that meteoroids trapped in the 1:6 resonance with Jupiter caused the unusual 2006 Orionid return.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
R. Arlt, G. Barentsen, Bulletin 21 of the International Leonid Watch: global analysis of visual observations of the 2006 Leonid meteor shower. IMO J. WGN 34, 163–168 (2006)
R. Arlt, J. Rendtel, P. Brown, V. Velkov, W.K. Hocking, J. Jones, The 1998 outburst and history of the June Boötid meteor shower. Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 308, 887–896 (1999)
D.J. Asher, V.V. Emel’yanenko, The origin of the June Bootid outburst in 1998 and determination of cometary ejection velocities. Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 331, 126–132 (2002)
D.J. Asher, M.E. Bailey, V.V. Emel’yanenko, Resonant meteoroids from Comet Tempel-Tuttle in 1333: the cause of the unexpected Leonid outburst in 1998. Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 304, L53–L56 (1999)
A. Dubietis, Long-term activity of meteor showers from Comet 1P/Halley. IMO J. WGN 31, 43–48 (2003)
V.V. Emel’yanenko, Resonance structure of meteoroid streams. in Proceedings of the Meteoroids 2001 Conference, ed. by B. Warmbein. ESA Publications Division (ESA SP-495) Noordwijk, Kiruna, 6–10 August 2001, pp. 43–45
A. Hajduk, Structure of the meteor stream associated with comet Halley. Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechosl. 21, 37–45 (1970)
P. Jenniskens, Meteor Showers and their Parent Comets (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006), 802 pp
A.C.B. Lovell, Meteor Astronomy (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1954), 463 pp
B.A. McIntosh, J. Jones, The Halley Comet meteor stream—numerical modelling of its dynamic evolution. Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 235, 673–693 (1988)
P.M. Millman, Observations of the Orionids in 1936. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Can. 30, 416–418 (1936)
C.P. Olivier, Report of the American Meteor Society for 1919–1925. Publ. Leander McCormick Obs. 5, 1–49 (1935)
V. Porubčan, A. Hajduk, B.A. McIntosh, Visual meteor results from the International Halley Watch. Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechosl. 42, 199–204 (1991)
J.P.M. Prentice, The radiants of the Orionid meteor shower. J. Br. Astron. Assoc. 46, 329–336 (1936)
J.P.M. Prentice, The radiants of the Orionid meteor shower. J. Br. Astron. Assoc. 49, 148–153 (1939)
J. Rendtel, Three days of enhanced Orionid activity in 2006—meteoroids from a resonance region? IMO J. WGN 35, 41–45 (2007)
J. Rendtel, H. Betlem, Orionid meteor activity on Oct. 18, 1993. IMO J. WGN 21, 264–268 (1993)
J. Rendtel, R. Arlt, A. McBeath, Handbook for Visual Meteor Observers IMO Monograph No. 2, International Meteor Organization, Potsdam, 1995
J. Rendtel, R. Arlt, V. Velkov, Surprising activity of the 1998 June Bootids. IMO J. WGN 26, 165–172 (1998)
G. Ryabova, The Comet Halley meteoroid stream: just one more model. Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 341, 739–746 (2003)
M. Sato, J. Watanabe, Origin of the 2006 Orionid outburst. Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 59, L1–L4 (2007)
P. Spurný, L. Shrbený, Exceptional fireball activity of Orionids 2006. Earth Moon Planets (2007, this issue)
J. Štohl, V. Porubčan, Orionid meteor shower—activity and magnitude description. Contr. Astr. Obs. Skalnaté Pleso 10, 39–51 (1981)
J. Tóth, L. Kornoš, V. Porubčan, Photographic Leonids 1998 observed at Modra observatory. Earth Moon Planets 82/83, 285–294 (1998)
J.M. Trigo-Rodriguez, J.M. Madiedo, J. Llorca, P.S. Gural, P. Pujols, T. Tezel, The 2006 Orionid outburst imaged by all-sky CCD cameras from Spain: meteoroid spatial fluxes and orbital elements. Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 380, 126–132 (2007)
J. Zvolánková, Dependence of the observed rate of meteors on the Zenith distance of the radiant. Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechosl. 34, 122–128 (1983)
We thank all observers for sending their data to the IMO’s VMDB. Most of the 2006 data input was performed by Rainer Arlt with the assistance of Javor Kac. Pierre Bader, Frank Enzlein, Ulrich Sperberg and Roland Winkler made substantial additions, especially of the older data. David Asher of Armagh gave very useful comments on the role of stream meteoroids in resonant orbits. Thanks also to Peter Jenniskens, Robert Hawkes and Frans Rietmeijer for useful comments during the referee process.
About this article
Cite this article
Rendtel, J. The Orionid Meteor Shower Observed Over 70 Years. Earth Moon Planet 102, 103–110 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11038-007-9192-0
- Meteor showers
- Resonant meteoroids