Skip to main content

EDSF: Efficient Distributed Scheduling Function for IETF 6TiSCH-based Industrial Wireless Networks

Abstract

IETF 6TiSCH, which is composed of the IEEE802.15.4e and IPv6 RPL protocols, is a highly reliable and low-power industrial wireless network protocol stack. IEEE802.15.4e is the medium access control (MAC) layer protocol of the protocol stack—it defines a time-slotted channel hopping communication mode. IPv6 RPL is the network layer protocol of the protocol stack—it allows multiple nodes to form a multi-hop network. Scheduling is vital to the 6TiSCH protocol stack, as it defines the MAC layer cells to send/receive by the network packets. Herein, we propose an efficient distributed scheduling function (EDSF) for 6TiSCH wireless networks; it fully considers the use probability and distance of cells rather than random selection. Additionally, a schedule collision detection algorithm is proposed to detect two pairs of neighbor nodes that use the same cell. It fully utilizes the historical statistical data from the cell packet delivery ratio. Finally, we implement the EDSF scheme and verify its performance through experiments on a 6TiSCH simulator. The experimental results show that our proposed scheme can achieve a low end-to-end latency without additional costs.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

Data Availability

No data were used to support this article.

References

  1. Sisinni E, Saifullah A, Han S et al (2018) Industrial internet of things: Challenges, opportunities, and directions[J]. IEEE Trans Industr Inf 14(11):4724–4734

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Huang X (2020) Intelligent remote monitoring and manufacturing system of production line based on industrial Internet of Things[J]. Comput Commun 150(1):421–428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Pister K, Doherty L (2008) TSMP: Time Synchronized Mesh Protocol, International Symposium on Distributed Sensor Networks (DSN), pp 391–398

  4. WirelessHART Specification 75: TDMA Data-Link Layer, HART Communication Foundation Std., Rev. 1.1, 2008, hCF SPEC-75

  5. ISA-100.11a-2011 (2011) Wireless systems for industrial automation: Process control and related applications, International Society of Automation (ISA) Std.

  6. IEEE (2012) Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks-Part 15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs) Amendment 1: MAC Sublayer, IEEE Standard 802.15.4e-2012

  7. Stanislowski D, Vilajosana X, Wang Q et al (2014) Adaptive synchronization in IEEE802.15.4e networks[J]. IEEE Trans Ind Inform 10(1):795–802

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Watteyne T, Tuset-Peiro P, Vilajosana X et al (2017) Teaching communication technologies and standards for the industrial IoT? Use 6TiSCH![J]. IEEE Commun Mag 55(5):132–137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Accettura N, Vogli E, Palattella MR et al (2015) Decentralized traffic aware scheduling in 6TiSCH networks: Design and experimental evaluation[J]. IEEE Internet Things J 2(6):455–470

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Jin Y, Kulkarni P, Wilcox J et al (2016) A centralized scheduling algorithm for IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH based industrial low power wireless networks.[C]// Wireless Communications & Networking Conference, 2016 International Conference on. IEEE, pp 1725–1730

  11. Dujovne D, Grieco LA, Palattella MR, Accettura N (2017) 6TiSCH 6top Scheduling Function Zero / Experimental (SFX), Internet-Draft draft-ietf-6tisch-6top-sfx-00, Internet Engineering Task Force

  12. Chang T, Watteyne T, Wang Q, Vilajosana X (2016) LLSF: Low latency scheduling function for 6TiSCH networks.[C]// Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems Conference, 2016 International Conference on. IEEE, pp 93–95

  13. Daneels G, Spinnewyn B, Latre S et al (2018) ReSF: Recurrent low-latency scheduling in IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH networks[J]. Ad hoc networks 6(9):100–114

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Bormann C, Castellani AP, Shelby Z (2012) Coap: an application protocol for billions of tiny Internet nodes[J]. IEEE Internet Comput 16(2):62–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Thubert P, Winter T, Brandt A et al (2012) RPL: IPv6 routing protocol for low power and lossy networks [R]. Internet Engi-neering Task Force, New York

    Google Scholar 

  16. Faras A, Dujovne D (2015) A Queue-based Scheduling Algorithm for PCE enabled Industrial Internet of Things Networks.[C]// Embedded Systems Conference, 2015 International Conference on. IEEE, pp 31–36

  17. Palattella MR, Watteyne T, Wang Q et al (2016) On-the-fly bandwidth reservation for 6TiSCH wireless industrial networks[J]. IEEE Sens J 16(2):550–560

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Esteban M, Glenn D, Mališa V et al (2019) Simulating 6TiSCH networks[J]. Trans Emerg Telecommun Technol 30(3):1–16

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No.62002143, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province under Grant No. 20192BAB217007, and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province under Grant No. 20192ACBL21031.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

W.Y., Y.C. and H.W. contributed to the conception of the study; W.Y. and Z.Z. performed the experiment; W.Y. and H.W. contributed significantly to analysis and manuscript preparation; W.Y. and Y.C. performed the data analyses and wrote the manuscript; Y.C. and C.W. helped perform the analysis with constructive discussions. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yuanlong Cao.

Ethics declarations

Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yang, W., Cao, Y., Wang, H. et al. EDSF: Efficient Distributed Scheduling Function for IETF 6TiSCH-based Industrial Wireless Networks. Mobile Netw Appl (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11036-022-02004-7

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11036-022-02004-7

Keywords

  • 6TiSCH
  • Distributed scheduling
  • Industrial wireless network
  • Time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH)