Survey on Wireless Networks Coexistence: Resource Sharing in the 5G Era

Abstract

The next generation of mobile-enabled wireless networks, known as 5G networks, is announced to be deployed by 2020. In the 5G framework, access technologies are one of the main features that would allow users to seamlessly connect to the Internet using any of the available technologies. These technologies are going to coexist in the same physical environment. This coexistence has the advantage of offering the user multiple options for establishing communications. On the other hand, existing and upcoming wireless standards have not given this coexistence enough attention. In this paper, we survey existing communication protocols, techniques and mechanisms, as well as features of the 5G communication standards that allow technology to cope well with coexistence. We focus on access layer solutions that can be used in unlicensed frequency bands. We also argue that resource sharing should be extended not only to manage the available spectrum but also the available physical systems. We argue in this paper that resource sharing mechanisms would have a positive impact on the 5G infrastructure for better spectrum efficiency.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. 1.

    International Telecommunication Union. M.2083: IMT Vision - “Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT for 2020 and beyond”, 2015-09. https://www.itu.int/dms_pubrec/itu-r/rec/m/R-REC-M.2083-0-201509-I!!PDF-E.pdf. Accessed 20 June 2019

  2. 2.

    Gohil A, Modi H, Patel SK (2013) 5G technology of mobile communication: a survey. In: 2013 International conference on intelligent systems and signal processing (ISSP), pp 288–292

  3. 3.

    Agiwal M, Roy A, Saxena N (2016) Next generation 5G wireless networks: a comprehensive survey. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 18(3):1617–1655. ISSN 1553-877X

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Wireless Broadband Alliance (2018a) 5G Networks—the role of Wi-Fi and unlicensed technologies. https://www.wballiance.com/resource/5g-networks-the-role-of-wi-fi-and-unlicensed-technologies/ technologies/technologies/. Accessed 20 June 2019

  5. 5.

    Wireless Broadband Alliance (2018b) Unlicensed Integration with 5G Networks. https://www.wballiance.com/resource/unlicensed-integration-with-5g-networks/. Accessed 20 June 2019

  6. 6.

    3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project (2017) IMT-2020 proposal submissions. https://www.3gpp.org/release-16. Accessed 19 June 2019

  7. 7.

    Contreras-Castillo J, Zeadally S, Guerrero Ibànez JA (2017) A seven-layered model architecture for Internet of Vehicles. J Inf Telecomm 1(1):4–22

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Wi-Fi Alliance (2018) Next generation Wi-Fi: the future of connectivity. https://www.wi-fi.org/downloads-registered-guest/Next_generation_WiFi_White_Paper_20181218.pdf/35810. Accessed 20 June 2019

  9. 9.

    GSMA (2018-11) Spectrum Sharing - GSMA Public Policy Position. https://www.gsma.com/spectrum/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Spectrum-Sharing-Positions.pdf. Accessed 20 June 2019

  10. 10.

    Huawei. 5G Spectrum - Public Policy Position, 2019-01-17. https://www.huawei.com/fr/about-huawei/public-policy/5g-spectrum. Accessed 20 June 2019

  11. 11.

    Feng J, Liu Z, Wu C, Ji Y (2019) Mobile edge computing for the internet of vehicles: offloading framework and job scheduling. IEEE Veh Technol Mag 14(1):28–36. ISSN 1556-6072

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Marinho J, Monteiro E (2012) Cognitive radio: survey on communication protocols, spectrum decision issues, and future research directions. Wirel Netw 18(2):147–164. ISSN 1572- 8196

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Yucek T, Arslan H A survey of spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive radio applications. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 11(1):116–130, First 2009. ISSN 1553-877X

  14. 14.

    Cormio C, Chowdhury KR (2009) A survey on mac protocols for cognitive radio networks. Ad Hoc Netw 7(7):1315–1329. ISSN 1570-8705

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Omer AE (2015) Review of spectrum sensing techniques in Cognitive Radio networks. In: 2015 International conference on computing, control, networking, electronics and embedded systems engineering (ICCNEEE), pp 439–446

  16. 16.

    Routray SK, Sharmila KP (2017) Software defined networking for 5G. In: 2017 4th international conference on advanced computing and communication Systems (ICACCS), pp 1–5

  17. 17.

    Borcoci E, Obreja S, Vochin M (2017) Internet of vehicles functional architectures-comparative critical study. In: The ninth international conference on advances in future internet, AFIN, pp 10–14

  18. 18.

    Chekired DA, Togou MA, Khoukhi L (2018) Hierarchical wireless vehicular fog architecture: a case study of scheduling electric vehicle energy demands. IEEE Veh Technol Mag 13(4):116–126. ISSN 1556-6072

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Federal Communications Commission (2005) Notice of proposed rule making and order: facilitating opportunities for flexible, efficient, and reliable spectrum use employing cognitive radio technologies. ET Docket No. 03-108, Feb. 2005. https://www.fcc.gov/document/facilitating-opportunities-flexible-efficient-and-reliable-spectrum-1. Accessed 19 June 2019

  20. 20.

    Urkowitz H (1967) Energy detection of unknown deterministic signals. Proc IEEE 55(4):523–531. ISSN 0018-9219

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Song C, Alemseged YD, Tran HN, Villardi G, Sun C, Filin S, Harada H (2010) Adaptive two thresholds based energy detection for cooperative spectrum sensing. In: 2010 7th IEEE consumer communications and networking conference, pp 1–6

  22. 22.

    Digham FF, Alouini M, Simon MK (2007) On the energy detection of unknown signals over fading channels. IEEE Trans Commun 55(1):21–24. ISSN 0090-6778

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Goudarzi S, Hassan W H, Anisi M H, Soleymani A (2015) A comparative review of vertical handover decision-making mechanisms in heterogeneous wireless networks. Indian J Sci Technol 8(23):1–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Zenaldan F, Hassan S, Habbal A (2017) Vertical handover in wireless heterogeneous networks. J Telecommun Electron Comput Eng (JTEC) 9(1–2):81–85

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    De Domenico A, Calvanese Strinati E, Di Benedetto M (2012) A survey on MAC strategies for cognitive radio networks. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 14(1):21–44. ISSN 1553-877X

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Lien S, Tseng C, Chen K (2008) Carrier sensing based multiple access protocols for cognitive radio networks. In: 2008 IEEE international conference on communications, pp 3208–3214

  27. 27.

    IEEE Standard Association (2013a) IEEE 802.11e-2005 - Local and metropolitan area networks–specific requirements–Part 11: wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications—Amendment 8: Medium Access Control (MAC) quality of service enhancements. https://standards.ieee.org/standard/802_11ac-2013.html

  28. 28.

    Cordeiro C, Challapali K (2007) C-MAC: a cognitive MAC protocol for multi-channel wireless networks. In: 2007 2nd IEEE international symposium on new frontiers in dynamic spectrum access networks, pp 147–157

  29. 29.

    Farago A, Myers AD, Syrotiuk VR, Zaruba GV (2000) Meta-MAC protocols: automatic combination of MAC protocols to optimize performance for unknown conditions. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 18(9):1670–1681. ISSN 0733-8716

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Doerr C, Neufeld M, Fifield J, Weingart T, Sicker DC, Grunwald D (2005) MultiMAC—an adaptive MAC framework for dynamic radio networking. In: First IEEE international symposium on new frontiers in dynamic spectrum access networks, 2005. DySPAN 2005, pp 548–555

  31. 31.

    Kim T-S, Park T, Sha M, Lu C (2012) Toward MAC protocol service over the air. In: 2012 IEEE global communications conference (GLOBECOM), pp 451–457

  32. 32.

    Qiao M, Zhao H, Wang S, Wei J (2016) MAC protocol selection based on machine learning in cognitive radio networks. In: 2016 19th international symposium on wireless personal multimedia communications (WPMC), pp 453–458

  33. 33.

    Demirors E, Sklivanitis G, Melodia T, Batalama SN (2015) RcUBe: real-time reconfigurable radio framework with self-optimization capabilities. In: 2015 12th annual IEEE international conference on sensing, communication, and networking (SECON). IEEE, pp 28–36

  34. 34.

    Yau S, Ge L, Hsieh P-C, Hou I-H, Cui S, Kumar PR, Ekbal A, Kundargi N (2015) WiMAC: rapid implementation platform for user definable MAC protocols through separation. ACM SIGCOMM Comput Commun Rev 45(4):109–110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Jooris B, Bauwens J, Ruckebusch P, De Valck P, Van Praet C, Moerman I, De Poorter E (2016) Taisc: a cross-platform mac protocol compiler and execution engine. Comput Netw 107:315–326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Isolani PH, Claeys M, Donato C, Granville LZ, Latré S (2018) A survey on the programmability of wireless MAC protocol. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 1–1. ISSN 1553-877X

  37. 37.

    Steenkiste P, Nychis G, Seshan S (2009) Enabling mac protocol implementations on software-defined radios. In: Proceedings of the 6th USENIX symposium on networked systems design and implementation

  38. 38.

    IEEE Standard Association (2013b) IEEE 802.11ac - IEEE standard for information technology - amendment 4: enhancements for very high throughput for operation in bands below 6 GHz. https://standards.ieee.org/standard/802_11ac-2013.html

  39. 39.

    Cisco Public (2018) The fifth generation of wifi, Technical White Paper. https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/products/collateral/wireless/aironet-3600-series/white-paper-c11-713103.pdf. Accessed 19 June 2019

  40. 40.

    Khorov E, Kiryanov A, Lyakhov A, Bianchi G (2018) A tutorial on IEEE 802.11ax high efficiency WLANs. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 1–1. ISSN 1553-877X

  41. 41.

    Valkanis A, Iossifides A, Chatzimisios P, Angelopoulos M, Katos V (2019) IEEE 802.11 ax spatial reuse improvement: an interference-based channel-access algorithm. IEEE Veh Technol Mag 14(2):78–84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    IEEE Standard Association (2019) P802.11ax/D4.0—IEEE draft standard for information technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems local and metropolitan area networks—-Specific requirements part 11: wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications amendment enhancements for high efficiency WLAN. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8672643

  43. 43.

    Cisco (2019) Cisco Catalyst 9100 access points data sheets. https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/wireless/catalyst-9100ax-access-points/datasheet-listing.html. Accessed 19 June 2019

  44. 44.

    IEEE Standard Association (2016) IEEE standard for information technology-telecommunications and information exchange between systems-local and metropolitan area networks-specific requirements-part 11: wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Amendment 2: Sub 1 GHz License Exempt Operation. https://standards.ieee.org/standard/802_11ac-2013.html

  45. 45.

    Khorov E, Lyakhov A, Krotov A, Guschin A (2015) A survey on IEEE 802.11ah: an enabling networking technology for smart cities. Comput Commun 58:53–69. ISSN 0140-3664. Special Issue on Networking and Communications for Smart Cities

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Ahmed N, Rahman H, Hussain MdI (2016) A comparison of 802.11ah and 802.15.4 for IoT. ICT Express 2(3):100–102. ISSN 2405-9595. Special Issue on ICT Convergence in the Internet of Things (IoT)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Wi-Fi Alliance (2019) Low power, long range Wi-Fi. https://www.wi-fi.org/discover-wi-fi/wi-fi-halow. Accessed 19 June 2019

  48. 48.

    Wang X, Mao S, Gong MX (2016) A survey of Lte Wi-Fi coexistence in unlicensed bands. GetMobile 20:17–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Mukherjee A, Cheng J, Falahati S, Koorapaty H, Kang DH, Karaki R, Falconetti L, Larsson D (2016) Licensed-assisted access LTE: coexistence with IEEE 802.11 and the evolution toward 5G. IEEE Commun Mag 54(6):50–57. ISSN 0163-6804

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    LTE Forum (2015) LTE-U CSAT Procedures TS v1.0

  51. 51.

    Qualcomm Research (2014) LTE in unlicensed spectrum: harmonious coexistence with Wi-Fi. White paper. https://www.qualcomm.com/media/documents/files/lte-unlicensed-coexistence-whitepaper.pdf. Accessed 20 January 2020

  52. 52.

    Breslin D, Jindal N (2013) LTE and Wi-Fi in unlicensed spectrum: a coexistence study. Google white paper. https://ecfsapi.fcc.gov/file/60001078145.pdf

  53. 53.

    Mehrnoush M, Patidar R, Roy S, Henderson T (2018) Modeling, simulation and fairness analysis of Wi-Fi and unlicensed LTE coexistence. arXiv preprint arXiv:1805.03011

  54. 54.

    Molina-Masegosa R, Gozalvez J (2017) LTE-V for Sidelink 5G V2X vehicular communications: a new 5g technology for short-range vehicle-to-everything communications. IEEE Veh Technol Mag 12(4):30–39. ISSN 1556-6072

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Nabil A, Kaur K, Dietrich C, Marojevic V (2018) Performance analysis of sensing-based semi-persistent scheduling in C-V2X networks. In: 2018 IEEE 88th vehicular technology conference (VTC-Fall), pp 1–5

  56. 56.

    Yang D, Xu Y, Gidlund M (2011) Wireless coexistence between IEEE 802.11-and IEEE 802.15. 4-based networks: a survey. Int J Distrib Sens Netw 7(1):912152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Chalhoub G, Perrier de La Bathie E, Misson M (2016) Overhead caused by WiFi on ZigBee networks using Slotted CSMA/CA. J Netw. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01595890

  58. 58.

    Orfanidis C, Feeney L M, Jacobsson M, Gunningberg P (2017) Investigating interference between LoRa and IEEE 802.15.4g networks. In: 2017 IEEE 13th international conference on wireless and mobile computing, networking and communications (WiMob). IEEE, pp 1–8

  59. 59.

    Yi P, Iwayemi A, Zhou C (2010) Frequency agility in a ZigBee network for smart grid application. In: 2010 Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), pp 1–6

  60. 60.

    Zeadally S, Siddiqui F, Baig Z (2019) 25 years of Bluetooth technology. Future Internet 11(9):194

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    So J, Kim Y (2016) Interference-aware frequency hopping for Bluetooth in crowded Wi-Fi networks. Electron Lett 52(17):1503–1505

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Sun W, Koo J, Byeon S, Park W, Lim S, Ban D, Choi S (2017) BlueCoDE: Bluetooth coordination in dense environment for better coexistence. In: 2017 IEEE 25th International conference on network protocols (ICNP). IEEE, pp 1–10

  63. 63.

    Lee J (2019) Multichannel WPAN protocol for coexistence under densely deployed Bluetooth LE in ISM. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 68(8):8103–8116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Shao C, Roh H, Lee W (2019) BuSAR: Bluetooth slot availability randomization for better coexistence with dense Wi-Fi networks. IEEE Trans Mob Comput. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMC.2019.2955080. ISSN= 1558-0660

  65. 65.

    Wetherall DJ, Tanenbaum AS (2010) RFID and sensor networks. Computer Networks, 5th edn, pp 73–75

  66. 66.

    Tang Z, He Y (2007) Research of multi-access and anti-collision protocols in RFID systems. In: 2007 international workshop on anti-counterfeiting, security and identification (ASID), pp 377–380

  67. 67.

    Smely D (2011) CEN DSRC/ITS-G5 coexistence. Workshop, Coexistence between CEN DSRC and ITS-G5. https://docbox.etsi.org/Workshop/2011/201107_ITSG5_DSRC/05-Smely_JRC_Plugtest_Coexistence_of_CEN_DSRC_and_ITS-G5_V00.pdf

  68. 68.

    3GPP (2018) 3rd generation partnership project; Technical specification group services and system aspects; Study on enhancement of 3GPP Support for 5G V2X Services (Release 16) 3GPP TR 22.886 V16.1.1 (2018-09). https://portal.3gpp.org/#/55936-specifications. Accessed 19 June 2019

  69. 69.

    Internet Engineering Task Force (2017a) 0-rtt TCP converters, draft-bonaventure-mptcp-converters. https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-ietf-tcpm-converters/. Accessed 21 June 2019

  70. 70.

    Internet Engineering Task Force (2017b) QUIC: a UDP-based multiplexed and secure transport. https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-ietf-quic-transport/. Accessed 21 June 2019

  71. 71.

    Internet Engineering Task Force (2017c) Multipath Extensions for QUIC (MP-QUIC). https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-deconinck-quic-multipath/. Accessed 21 June 2019

  72. 72.

    Internet Engineering Task Force (2016) Multiple access management services. https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-kanugovi-intarea-mams-framework/https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-kanugovi-intarea-mams-framework/. Accessed 21 June 2019

  73. 73.

    Xu T, Zhang M, Zeng Y, Hu H (2019) Harmonious coexistence of heterogeneous wireless networks in unlicensed bands: solutions from the statistical signal transmission technique. IEEE Veh Technol Mag 14(2):61–69

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Hur S, Kim T, Love DJ, Krogmeier JV, Thomas TA, Ghosh A (2013) Millimeter wave beamforming for wireless backhaul and access in small cell networks. IEEE Trans Commun 61(10):4391–4403

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Barati CN, Hosseini SA, Mezzavilla M, Korakis T, Panwar SS, Rangan S, Zorzi M (2016) Initial access in millimeter wave cellular systems. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 15(12):7926– 7940

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Abdullah NF, Nordin R, Doufexi A, Nix AR (2017) Effect of beamforming on mmWave systems in various realistic environments. In: 2017 IEEE 85th Vehicular technology conference (VTC Spring), pp 1–5

  77. 77.

    European Telecommunications Standards Institute ETSI TS 102 792 V1.2.1 (2015-06)-Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Mitigation techniques to avoid interference between European CEN Dedicated Short Range Communication (CEN DSRC) equipment and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) operating in the 5 GHz frequency range, 2015-06. https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/solution/etsi-ts-102-792-v121-2015-06-https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/solution/etsi-ts-102-792-v121-2015-06-

  78. 78.

    IEEE Standard Association (2017) IEEE 802.21-2017/Cor 1-2017 - IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks–Part 21: media independent services framework–corrigendum 1: clarification of parameter definition in group session key derivation. https://standards.ieee.org/standard/802_21-2017-Cor1-2017.html

  79. 79.

    Wu L, Sandrasegaran K (2007) A survey on common radio resource management. In: The 2nd International conference on wireless broadband and ultra wideband communications (AusWireless 2007), pp 66–66

  80. 80.

    Mamadou AM, Toussaint J, Chalhoub G (2019) Interference study of coexisting IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 Networks. Invited paper. In: IFIP/IEEE international conference on performance evaluation and modeling in wired and wireless networks. IFIP/IEEE

  81. 81.

    Mészáros L (2019) An efficient and versatile signal representation in the INET Physical Layer. OMNeT++ Community Summit. https://summit.omnetpp.org/2019/assets/pdf/math.pdf. Accessed 14 January 2020

  82. 82.

    Inet Framework (2020a) Showcases: crosstalk between adjacent IEEE 802.11 channels. https://inet.omnetpp.org/docs/showcases/wireless/crosstalk/doc/index.html. Accessed 14 January 2020

  83. 83.

    Inet Framework (2020b) Showcases: coexistence of IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 (in 2.4 GHz ISM band). https://inet.omnetpp.org/docs/showcases/wireless/coexistence/doc/index.html. Accessed 14 January 2020

  84. 84.

    Evans D (2011) Cisco White paper—The internet of things how the next evolution of the internet is changing everything. https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en_us/about/ac79/docs/innov/IoT_IBSG_0411FINAL.pdf. Accessed 20 June 2019

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ali Mamadou Mamadou.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mamadou Mamadou, A., Toussaint, J. & Chalhoub, G. Survey on Wireless Networks Coexistence: Resource Sharing in the 5G Era. Mobile Netw Appl 25, 1749–1764 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11036-020-01564-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • Networks coexistence
  • Spectrum efficiency
  • Resource sharing
  • Connected cities
  • 5G