Skip to main content
Log in

A Statistical Lower UWB Channel Model for in Body Communications

  • Published:
Mobile Networks and Applications Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Applications of implantable micro-level wireless devices in the instantaneous collection and observation of body potentials of patients is becoming prominent nowadays. The license free radio band that is reserved internationally for industrial, scientific, and medical purposes (ISM) is being used currently for the above telemedicine applications. However, for short distance higher bit rate applications such as capsule endoscopy, the ultra-wide band (UWB) of frequencies is found as much suitable, since base band communication with less complex transceivers is possible due to its noise like behavior. But before developing any wireless network, it is necessary to characterize the radio channel accurately. In Body Area Network (BAN) with implantable low power and high data rate transceivers, on site measurement is not practically feasible. Therefore, easy to use statistical models that are derived from the measurement data are preferred. In this paper, authors introduce honey as an easily available and less expensive base, through a study of its dielectric properties, for preparing body mimicking liquid phantoms. In addition, this paper proposes an empirical in-body UWB channel model to determine the possible pathloss in the human abdominal region. The empirical pathloss data, which have been collected with the above liquid phantoms that mimic the biological tissues in lower UWB i.e. 3.1 GHz – 9 GHz frequency range are used to derive the proposed model.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Chavez-Santiago R, Balasingham I (2014) Ultrawideband signals in medicine [life sciences]. IEEE Signal Process Mag 31(6):130–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Zastrow E, Davis SK, Hagness SC (2007) Safety assessment of breast cancer detection via ultra-wide band microwave radar operating in pulsed radiation mode. Microw Opt Technol Lett 49(1):221–225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Chandra R, Johansson AJ (2013) A Link Loss Model for the On-Body Propagation Channel for Binaural Hearing Aids. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 61(12):6180–6190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Oliveira C, Mackowiak M, Correia LM (2013) Modelling On- and Off-Body Channels in Body Area Networks. SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 1–5

  5. Uusitupa T, Aoyagi T (2013) Analysis of Dynamic On-Body Communication Channels for Various Movements and Polarization Schemes at 2.45 GHz. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 61(12):6168–6179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Otto C, Milenkovic A, Sanders C, Jovanov E (2006) System architecture of a wireless body area sensor network for ubiquitous health monitoring. Journal of Mobile Multimedia 1(4):307–326

    Google Scholar 

  7. Kumpuniemi T, Tuovinen T, Hämäläinen M, Yazdandoost KY, Vuohtoniemi R, Iinatti J (2013) Measurement-Based On-Body Path Loss Modelling for UWB WBAN Communications. 7th International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology (ISMICT), 233–237

  8. Maskooki A, Soh CB, Gunawan E, Low KS (2013) Ultra-Wideband Real-Time Dynamic Channel Characterization and System-Level Modeling for Radio Links in Body Area Networks. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 61(8):2995–3004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Lim HB, Baumann D, Li E-P (2011) A Human Body Model for Efficient Numerical Characterization of UWB Signal Propagation in Wireless Body Area Networks. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 58(3):689–697

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Wang J, Wang Q (2009) Channel modeling and BER performance of an implant UWB body area link. Proceedings of Second International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technology (ISABEL’09), Bratislava

    Book  Google Scholar 

  11. Nagaoka T, Watanabe S, Saurai K, Kunieda E, Watanabe S, Taki M, Yamanaka Y (2004) Development of realistic high resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry. Phys Med Biol 49:1–15

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Khaleghi A, Chavez-Santiago R, Liang X, Balasingham I, Leung VCM, Ramstad TA (2010) On ultra-wide band channel modeling for in-body communications. Proceedings of Fifth IEEE International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing (ISWPC), Modena, pp 140–145

    Google Scholar 

  13. Khaleghi A, Chavez-Santiago R, Balasingham I (2011) Ultra-wideband statistical propagation channel model for implant sensors in the human chest. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation 5(15):1805–1812

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Gabriel C (1996) Compilation of the dielectric properties of body tissues at RF and microwave frequencies. Brooks Air Force, N.AL/OE-TR- 1996-0037, San Antonio

    Book  Google Scholar 

  15. Khaleghi A, Chavez-Santiago R, Balasingham I (2012) An improved ultra-wide band channel model including the frequency-dependent attenuation for in-body communications. Proc. IEEE 34th Annu. Int. Conf. Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., San Diego, pp 1631–1634

    Google Scholar 

  16. Støa S, Chavez-Santiago R, Balasingham I (2010) An Ultra-Wide band Communication Channel Model for the Human Abdominal Region. Proc. IEEE Globecom 2010 Workshop on Advanced Sensor Integration Technology (ASIT 2010), Miami

    Google Scholar 

  17. Støa S, Chavez-Santiago R, Balasingham I (2010) An Ultra Wideband Communication Channel Model for Capsule Endoscopy. Proceedings of 3rd International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies (ISABEL 2010), Rome, pp 1–5

    Google Scholar 

  18. Brumm JC, Bauch G (2017) On the shadowing distribution for ultra wideband in-body communication path loss modeling. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, San Diego, pp 805–806

    Google Scholar 

  19. Floor PA, Cháavez-Santiago R, Brovoll S, Aardal Ø, Bergsland J, Grymyr O-JHN, Halvorsen PS, Palomar R, Plettemeier D, Hamran S-E, Ramstad TA, Balasingham I (2015) In-Body to On-Body Ultrawideband Propagation Model Derived From Measurements in Living Animals. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics 19(3):938–948

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Garcia-Pardo C, Fornes-Leal A, Cardona N, Chávez-Santiago R, Bergsland J, Balasingham I, Brovoll S, Aardal Ø, Hamran S-E, Palomar R (2016) Experimental Ultra Wideband Path Loss Models for Implant Communications. IEEE 27th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Valencia, pp 1–6

    Google Scholar 

  21. Leelatien P, Ito K, Saito K, Sharma M, Alomainy A (2018) Channel Characteristics and Wireless Telemetry Performance of Transplanted Organ Monitoring System Using Ultra-wideband Communication. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. Thirumaraiselvan.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Thirumaraiselvan, P., Sakthidasan @ Sankaran, K., Geo, V.B. et al. A Statistical Lower UWB Channel Model for in Body Communications. Mobile Netw Appl 24, 1814–1820 (2019).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: