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Link Scheduling Scheme with Shared Links and Virtual Tokens for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract

Industrial wireless sensor networks can help improve the efficiency, reconfigurability and flexibility of future factories, and facilitate the introduction of new applications. Industrial applications are generally characterized with strict reliability and latency requirements. The capacity to meet such requirements is highly dependent on an efficient utilization of communication links. Such efficient utilization will become even more critical as the number of deployed sensors and traffic in factories increase. In this context, this paper presents a novel link scheduling scheme for industrial wireless sensor networks that uses shared links among nodes that are part of the same path or multi-hop route. The transmission of a message along a route acts as a virtual token to identify which node should use the shared links at each point in time. This study demonstrates that the proposed link scheduling scheme can significantly improve the reliability, latency and efficiency of industrial wireless sensor networks. The proposed link scheduling scheme is here applied to industrial wireless sensor networks, but it can be used in other centralized TDMA-based multi-hop wireless networks.

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Notes

  1. Each node gets into reception mode in a different link. For example, node B gets into reception mode in l 1 , while C and D do it in l 2 and l 3 respectively.

  2. If the second transmission would have been erroneous, node A will have tried for the third time the transmission of the message to node B using l 3 . If this transmission would have been correct, then node B would have transmitted the message to node C using l 4 .

  3. For example, if a scheme delivers very few messages to the destination node, it will consume less energy than a scheme that delivers most of the messages to the destination since fewer transmissions will take place.

  4. It is important to remember that when RTE is configured with two links per hop, it will not be able to deliver the message to the destination node if there are more than two transmission errors.

  5. When R is equal to 3, we will need to add an additional term that results from the multiplication of P 3-rtx (Eq. (8)) by its corresponding delay (H + 3) divided by PDR E2E . The D E2E expression is not shown here due to its complexity.

  6. This restriction aims to represent the fact that in factories, the mobility of nodes is generally limited to their working environment, e.g. workers usually move around the machinery they manipulate.

  7. The results are obtained considering the same PDR i value for each hop in the path.

  8. In fact, LIKUID always outperforms RTE independently of the number of hops in a path when R is equal or higher than 2.

  9. LIKUID4 assigns the same total number of links for the path as HbH and RTE in scenario 2. LIKUID3 assigned the same total number of links for the path as HbH and RTE in scenario 1.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and FEDER funds under the project TEC2014-57146-R, and by the Local Government of Valencia with reference ACIF/2013/060.

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Correspondence to Sergio Montero.

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Montero, S., Gozalvez, J. & Sepulcre, M. Link Scheduling Scheme with Shared Links and Virtual Tokens for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. Mobile Netw Appl 22, 1083–1099 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11036-016-0727-3

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Keywords

  • Industrial wireless sensor networks
  • Scheduling
  • Link scheduling
  • WirelessHART
  • ISA100.11a
  • Shared links
  • Virtual tokens
  • Centralized TDMA
  • TDMA
  • Multi-hop wireless networks
  • Reliability
  • Latency
  • Energy consumption
  • Factories of the future
  • Industry 4.0
  • Industrial wireless communications
  • Industrial wireless networks