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Cancer treatment therapies: traditional to modern approaches to combat cancers

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Abstract

As far as health issues are concerned, cancer causes one out of every six deaths around the globe. As potent therapeutics are still awaited for the successful treatment of cancer, some unconventional treatments like radiotherapy, surgery, and chemotherapy and some advanced technologies like gene therapy, stem cell therapy, natural antioxidants, targeted therapy, photodynamic therapy, nanoparticles, and precision medicine are available to diagnose and treat cancer. In the present scenario, the prime focus is on developing efficient nanomedicines to treat cancer. Although stem cell therapy has the capability to target primary as well as metastatic cancer foci, it also has the ability to repair and regenerate injured tissues. However, nanoparticles are designed to have such novel therapeutic capabilities. Targeted therapy is also now available to arrest the growth and development of cancer cells without damaging healthy tissues. Another alternative approach in this direction is photodynamic therapy (PDT), which has more potential to treat cancer as it does minimal damage and does not limit other technologies, as in the case of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The best possible way to treat cancer is by developing novel therapeutics through translational research. In the present scenario, an important event in modern oncology therapy is the shift from an organ-centric paradigm guiding therapy to complete molecular investigations. The lacunae in anticancer therapy may be addressed through the creation of contemporary and pertinent cancer therapeutic techniques. In the meantime, the growth of nanotechnology, material sciences, and biomedical sciences has revealed a wide range of contemporary therapies with intelligent features, adaptable functions, and modification potential. The development of numerous therapeutic techniques for the treatment of cancer is summarized in this article. Additionally, it can serve as a resource for oncology and immunology researchers.

Highlights

• Comprehensive knowledge of traditional and emerging cancer treatment approaches.

• Recent advancement in cancer treatment therapies.

• Nanoparticle, stem cell and exosome-based approaches for cancer treatment.

• Integrative mechanism used for targeted therapy and immunotherapy.

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Data Availability

No data was used for the research described in the article.

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Acknowledgements

Authors are grateful to Dr. Shoor Vir Singh, Professor & Head, Department of Biotechnology at GLA University, Mathura for help and support during the present study.

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RK and AB contributed to the conceptualization, literature search, data collection, study design, SG contributed to critical review and preparation of the final version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Alok Bhardwaj or Saurabh Gupta.

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Kaur, R., Bhardwaj, A. & Gupta, S. Cancer treatment therapies: traditional to modern approaches to combat cancers. Mol Biol Rep 50, 9663–9676 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-023-08809-3

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