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Biomarkers of liver diseases

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Abstract

The liver is one of the pivotal organs in the human body and is fundamentally responsible for detoxification and metabolism. Various disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hepatitis are associated with improper functions of the liver. Hence, biomarkers are needed to determine the severity. Further, many liver enzymes, including the cascade of aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and total bilirubin (TBIL), are conventional liver biomarkers. They are not, however, unique to the liver; hence, efforts are being made to identify the precise biomarkers for liver illness that can target liver diseases. HMGB1, cytokeratin 18 (K18), glutathione-S-transferase-α (GST-α), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and microRNAs (miRNA) are a few examples of developing biomarkers used to detect many liver diseases. Hence, the review has highlighted various novel biomarkers of the liver so that various pathophysiological pathways and treatments can be made easier.

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Abbreviations

CCl4 :

Carbon tetrachloride

GLDH:

Glutamate dehydrogenase

AST:

Aspartate aminotransferase

ANIT:

α-Naphthylisothiocynate

ALT:

Alanine aminotransferase

MDH:

Malate dehydrogenase

ALP:

Alkaline phosphate

GST-α:

Glutathione-S-transferase α

GGT:

Gamma glutamyl trans peptidase

miRNA:

Micro RNA

TBIL:

Total bilirubin

OPN:

Osteopontin

DILI:

Drug induced liver injury

HSC:

Hepatic stellate cells

HMGB1:

High mobility group box-1

HCC:

Hepatocellular carcinoma

TLRs:

Toll like receptors

PNP:

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase

RAGE:

Receptor for advanced glycation end products

DCP:

Des-gamma carboxy prothrombin

DAMP:

Damage associated molecular patterns

AFP:

Alpha-fetoprotein

APAP:

Acetaminophen

HBV:

Hepatitis B virus

K18:

Keratin 18

HCV:

Hepatitis C virus

ccK18:

Caspases-cleaved keratin 18

NAFLD:

Non alcoholic fatty liver disease

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Acknowledgements

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to S. Gurvinder Singh Bahra, Hon’ble Chancellor and Chairman, Rayat Bahra University, Mohali, who gave me a platform for pursuing masters work in this esteemed University. I am greatly indebted to Prof. (Dr.) Parvinder Singh, worthy Vice Chancellor, for graciously permitting me to carry on the research work.

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Sukhbir Singh Tamber, Palak Bansal, and Ramica Sharma designed the study. Sukhbir Singh Tamber wrote the first draft of the manuscript. Suraj Sharma and Rai Barinder Singh provided constructive suggestions for improving the work. Ramica Sharma edited and reviewed the manuscript. Rai Barinder Singh also helped in revising the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Ramica Sharma.

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Tamber, S.S., Bansal, P., Sharma, S. et al. Biomarkers of liver diseases. Mol Biol Rep 50, 7815–7823 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-023-08666-0

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