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Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) polymorphisms are associated with dysregulation of biochemical parameters in hypertensive patients

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The genetic component, including genes and their variants, plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension (AH). Thus, clinical, epidemiological and genetic studies have been carried out to improve the understanding of disease mechanisms, improve diagnostic quality and contribute to prevention.


To determine the association of risk factors, biochemical parameters and different ACE gene polymorphisms with AH.


The case-control study was carried out in the population of Ouro Preto, Brazil. The subjects answered a questionnaire containing clinical and sociodemographic data. The ACE gene polymorphisms rs4291, rs4363 and rs4335 were evaluated by real time-polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) in 310 people (155 hypertensive and 155 normotensive patients), in addition to biochemical parameters. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with AH. Analysis of continuous variables was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test to assess significance between groups and Dunn’s post-test for multiple comparisons.


The results showed that AH was associated with age, education, smoking, obesity and high levels of triglycerides, sodium, glucose and uric acid. Regarding the biochemical parameters, in hypertensive patients, the rs4363 and rs4335 polymorphisms were associated with high levels of triglycerides, urea and glucose; the rs4291 polymorphism was associated with elevated urea and glucose levels. No association was detected between SNPs and HA.


AH was associated with socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits and biochemical parameters. ACE polymorphisms may have influenced the levels of triglycerides, urea and glucose in hypertensive patients.

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We thank all patients who agreed to participate in this study. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Clinical Analysis Laboratory (LAPAC), Laboratory of Epidemiology of the School of Medicine, Laboratory of Epidemiology of the School of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Clinical Research Laboratory of the Federal University of Ouro Preto.


This study was supported by Ouro Preto Municipal Health Department (18.295.295/0001-36), Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP) [Grant No. 23109.004080/2019-88], Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) [Finance Code 001], Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) [Grant No. 310905/2020-6, CNPq Research Productivity Scholarship] and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais [Grant No. APQ-03555-22].

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All of the authors discussed the results and approved the final manuscript. LCA carried out the experiments, contributed to data interpretation and wrote the manuscript. AAL, LFMT, WCV, NTS, TCA and VAB contributed to the experimental design, data interpretation and writing of the manuscript. WRC, ASM and LBM supported the experiments. GNS was the advisor, contributed to the experimental design and data interpretation as well as critically read the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Glenda Nicioli da Silva.

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The authors have no financial or proprietary interests in any material discussed in this article

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Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical approval

This study was carried out in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study was approved by the Committees of Research Ethics of the University Federal of Ouro Preto (CAAE 22455119.0.0000.5150).

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da Agostini, L., Cunha, W.R., Silva, N.N.T. et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) polymorphisms are associated with dysregulation of biochemical parameters in hypertensive patients. Mol Biol Rep 50, 1487–1497 (2023).

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