Biosynthesis and regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) has recently gained a lot of attention. A systemic decline in NAD+ across many tissues is associated with all the hallmarks of aging. NAD+ can affect a variety of cellular processes, including metabolic pathways, DNA repair, and immune cell activity, both directly and indirectly. These cellular processes play a vital role in maintaining homeostasis, but as people get older, their tissue and cellular NAD+ levels decrease, and this drop in NAD+ levels has been connected to a number of age-related disorders. By restoring NAD+ levels, several of these age-related disorders can be delayed or even reversed. Some of the new studies conducted in mice and humans have targeted the NAD+ metabolism with NAD+ intermediates. Of these, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) has been shown to offer great therapeutic potential with promising results in age-related chronic conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular issues, cognitive impairment, and many others. Further, human interventions are required to study the long-term effects of supplementing NMN with varying doses. The paper focuses on reviewing the importance of NAD+ on human aging and survival, biosynthesis of NAD+ from its precursors, key clinical trial findings, and the role of NMN on various health conditions.
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Soma, M., Lalam, S.K. The role of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in anti-aging, longevity, and its potential for treating chronic conditions. Mol Biol Rep 49, 9737–9748 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-022-07459-1