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Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease risk. A literature overview

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Abstract

Background

Atherosclerosis and cerebro and cardiovascular disease associated represent the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, vitamin D deficiency has been considered a new potential risk factor of these conditions.

Methods and Results

In this reviw we briefly describe the biological role of vitamin D, analyze the pathophysiological associations between cardiovascular disease and vitamin D, summarize and synthesize the evidence from literature about the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

Results

Vit D is an essential vitamin for bone metabolism and homeostasis. The maintenance of optimal blood levels contributes to the correct homeostasis by influencing different metabolic processes, including those underlying cardiovascular diseases. However, the evidence does not support vitamin D routine administration for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and intake to achieve specific cardiovascular effects. Evidence shows that maintaining optimal levels of vitamin D, ensures cardiovascular protection.

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Abbreviations

25-OH D:

25-Hydroxyvitamin D

PTH:

Parathyroid hormone

VDR:

Vitamin D receptor

T2D:

Type 2 diabetes

RCT:

Randomized control trails

CVD:

Cardiovascular disease

1,25-OH D:

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D

FGF23:

Fibroblast growth factor 23

PWV:

Pulse wave velocity

BP:

Blood pressure

CRP:

C-reactive protein

IL-6:

Interleukin-6

TNF-α:

Tumor necrosis factor-alfa

HF:

Heart failure

AF:

Atrial fibrillation

MI:

Myocardial infarction

CAD:

Coronary artery disease

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Correspondence to Francesca Cortese.

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Cortese, F., Costantino, M.F., Luzi, G. et al. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease risk. A literature overview. Mol Biol Rep 49, 8925–8942 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-022-07373-6

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