Breast cancer is currently the most common form of malignant tumour in womenboth in the Czech Republic and in most countries of the western world, and its incidence is constantly increasing. Many risk factors are known to play a major role in the development of this form of cancer. One of them is genetics, especially the BRCA1/2 genes. A higher risk of ovarian cancer is also associated with these genes. With the development of laboratory diagnostics massive parallel sequencing methods (NGS) are now routinely employed, enabling the detection of other pathogenic sequence variants, or variants of uncertain significance (VUS) not previously detected. Besides the high penetrance BRCA1/2 genes, medium and low penetrant genes also come to the fore. There were 2046 probands examined in the study, men and women, mainly from eastern part of the Czech Republic. These were selected for a genetic examination, after meeting indication criteria (probands from high-risk families or with breast or ovarian cancer). From this group only women, 2033 probands, were selected and were given a genetic examination for the possible presence of patogenic sequence variants in BRCA1/2 genes, or other candidate genes. Analyses were conducted in the laboratory using DHPLC or next generation sequencing. MLPA method is used for large rearrangements in genes. From all examined women 212 mutations were detected. The most mutations (128) were found in the BRCA1 gene (60%). In the BRCA2 gene 71 mutations (34%) were found and 13 more mutations (6%) were detected in another candidate genes (CHEK2, PALB2, ERCC4). The most frequent sequence variant was c.5266dupC in the BRCA1 gene. The results show that 72% of women with a confirmed mutation in the BRCA1 gene and 77.5% of women with the sequence variant BRCA2, already had breast cancer and 16.4% of women with BRCA1 and 7% of women with BRCA2 already had ovarian cancer. Only 21 high risk families used the possibility to be tested and had undergone targeted mutation testing. The study results suggest a reflection of the causes and needs for examination of patients and women predisposed to breast or ovarian cancer.
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I would like to thank the Agel Laboratory for providing research data. I would also like to thank the Faculty of Medicine in Ostrava for their financial support in the professional translation of this article. This article was created with the support of the SGS09 / LF / 2019 project.
This study was supported by a Student grant competition from Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, Czech Republic (SGS09/LF/2019).
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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Riedlova, P., Janoutova, J. & Hermanova, B. Frequency of mutations in BRCA genes and other candidate genes in high-risk probands or probands with breast or ovarian cancer in the Czech Republic. Mol Biol Rep 47, 2763–2769 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05378-7
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