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Stem cell therapy: old challenges and new solutions


Stem cell therapy (SCT), born as therapeutic revolution to replace pharmacological treatments, remains a hope and not yet an effective solution. Accordingly, stem cells cannot be conceivable as a “canonical” drug, because of their unique biological properties. A new reorientation in this field is emerging, based on a better understanding of stem cell biology and use of cutting-edge technologies and innovative disciplines. This will permit to solve the gaps, failures, and long-term needs, such as the retention, survival and integration of stem cells, by employing pharmacology, genetic manipulation, biological or material incorporation. Consequently, the clinical applicability of SCT for chronic human diseases will be extended, as well as its effectiveness and success, leading to long-awaited medical revolution. Here, some of these aspects are summarized, reviewing and discussing recent advances in this rapidly developing research field.

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Fig. 1

reproduced from the article by Tewary et al. (2018) with permission from Springer Nature]

Fig. 2

reproduced from the article by Bellin et al. (2012) with permission from Springer Nature]

Fig. 3
Fig. 4

reproduced from the article by Ong et al. (2018) with permission from Springer Nature]

Fig. 5

reproduced from the open-access article by Yuan et al. (2018) distributed by Frontiers Open Access Publisher under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY)]



Adipose stem cells


Advanced therapy medicinal products


Bone marrow derived mononuclear cells


Endothelial progenitor cells


Embryonic stem cells


Hematopoietic stem progenitor cells


Hematopoietic stem cells


Induced pluripotent cells


Mesenchymal stem cells


Peripheral blood mononuclear cells


Regenerative medicine


Stem cell therapy


Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells


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Correspondence to Carmela Rita Balistreri.

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Balistreri, C.R., De Falco, E., Bordin, A. et al. Stem cell therapy: old challenges and new solutions. Mol Biol Rep 47, 3117–3131 (2020).

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  • Stem cell therapy
  • Regenerative medicine
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