Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 73–89 | Cite as

Proteins involved in biophoton emission and flooding-stress responses in soybean under light and dark conditions

  • Abu Hena Mostafa Kamal
  • Setsuko Komatsu
Original Article


To know the molecular systems basically flooding conditions in soybean, biophoton emission measurements and proteomic analyses were carried out for flooding-stressed roots under light and dark conditions. Photon emission was analyzed using a photon counter. Gel-free quantitative proteomics were performed to identify significant changes proteins using the nano LC–MS along with SIEVE software. Biophoton emissions were significantly increased in both light and dark conditions after flooding stress, but gradually decreased with continued flooding exposure compared to the control plants. Among the 120 significantly identified proteins in the roots of soybean plants, 73 and 19 proteins were decreased and increased in the light condition, respectively, and 4 and 24 proteins were increased and decreased, respectively, in the dark condition. The proteins were mainly functionally grouped into cell organization, protein degradation/synthesis, and glycolysis. The highly abundant lactate/malate dehydrogenase proteins were decreased in flooding-stressed roots exposed to light, whereas the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme was increased in both light and dark conditions. Notably, however, specific enzyme assays revealed that the activities of these enzymes and biophoton emission were sharply increased after 3 days of flooding stress. This finding suggests that the source of biophoton emission in roots might involve the chemical excitation of electron or proton through enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation and reduction reactions. Moreover, the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme may play important roles in responses in flooding stress of soybean under the light condition and as a contributing factor to biophoton emission.


Light Dark Flooding stress Biophoton emission Proteomics 



Lactate dehydrogenase


Malate dehydrogenase


Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase


Saccharopine dehydrogenase


Ascorbate peroxidase


2, 6-dichloroisonicotinic acid


Trichloroacetic acid


Mass spectrometry


Liquid chromatography



The authors would like to thank Dr. Takahiro Makino at the Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Japan for useful discussions. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. 25.03515.

Supplementary material

11033_2015_3940_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (244 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 244 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Crop ScienceNational Agriculture and Food Research OrganizationTsukubaJapan

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