Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 40, Issue 12, pp 6935–6943 | Cite as

Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in endangered Bhutia and Manipuri pony breeds

  • A. K. Gupta
  • Mamta Chauhan
  • Anuradha Bhardwaj


For studying the genetic diversity and bottleneck problem in Bhutia and Manipuri pony breeds of India, we analysed DNA samples of 34 Bhutia and 50 Manipuri, true to breed, ponies using 47 polymorphic microsatellite markers. All the microsatellites were observed to be highly polymorphic in nature in both Bhutia and Manipuri breeds with mean no. of alleles as 8.702 ± 0.0493 and 8.416 ± 0.0548 respectively. Genetic diversity values in terms of heterozygosity values within individual breeds were also high with very low inbreeding (Fis 0.102 and 0.055 in Bhutia and Manipuri ponies, respectively). Number of alleles in both the populations together ranged from 3 to 18 with an average of 10.851 ± 1.583 per locus. The mean effective number of alleles was observed to 5.34 ± 0.253. All loci except ASB017 and HTG004 showed high values of allele richness (>5.0). The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.7159 ± 0.022, 0.7986 ± 0.011 (Levene’s) and 0.7936 ± 0.011 (Nei’s), respectively. The high mean values of heterozygosity indicated the presence of high genetic diversity in both the pony populations. The overall mean value of within-population inbreeding estimates (Fis) was low (0.101 ± 0.023) indicating low to moderate level of inbreeding. Bottleneck studies revealed that no recent bottleneck problem has taken place in both the populations. Both pony populations were found to be in mutation drift equilibrium. The study reveals that both the pony breeds have high diversity and timely action needs to be taken to conserve them.


Bhutia Manipuri pony breed Bottleneck Genetic diversity Microsatellite markers 



The authors are thankful to the Director, National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar for providing necessary facilities for carrying out this study. Thanks are due to State Animal Husbandry Department, Manipur for their kind help in collection of blood samples. Thanks are also due to Dr. R. K.Vijh, Pr. Scientist, NBAGR, Karnal for help in data analysis and Dr. Carlos Garza, USA for valuable comments in this manuscript.

Supplementary material

11033_2013_2813_MOESM1_ESM.doc (215 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 215 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Gupta
    • 1
  • Mamta Chauhan
    • 1
  • Anuradha Bhardwaj
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research Centre on EquinesHisarIndia

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