Development of molecular markers for breeding of double flowers in Japanese gentian
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Double flowers are valuable floral traits in most floricultural plants. We recently revealed that a double-flowered mutant of Gentiana scabra was caused by an insertion of a retrotransposable element (Tgs1) into GsAG1, one of the C-class MADS-box genes in gentian. In this study, we developed a PCR-based molecular DNA marker to distinguish double- and single-flower phenotypes at the young seedling stage in Japanese gentian plants. To test the validity of the markers, 17 F2 populations were produced by selfing F1 plants crossed between the double-flower mutant and seven breeding lines. Multiplex PCR demonstrated that the Tgs1 insertion in GsAG1 cosegregated with the double-flower phenotype in two F2 populations, indicating that the PCR-based DNA marker was useful to discriminate between double- and single-flower phenotypes in advance of flowering in Japanese gentian. Given that Japanese gentians lack variation in flower shape and require a long breeding period, the DNA marker developed here will be helpful for efficient breeding of double-flowered cultivars in the future.
KeywordsC-class MADS-box gene Double-flower GsAG1 Japanese gentian Molecular marker
polymerase chain reaction
marker assisted selection
We thank Ms. H. Harumi for technical assistance with PCR and scoring of flower phenotypes in F2 populations. This research was financially supported by the Science and Technology Research Promotion Program for Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries and Food Industry (No. 27030C).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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