Giving hope a sporting chance: Hope as distinct from optimism when events are possible but not probable
- 758 Downloads
Popular hope theories treat hope as an expectancy-based construct, with individuals more hopeful the greater their perceived likelihood of success. Consequently, the distinction between hope and other expectancy-based concepts (e.g., optimism) is unclear. The present research aims to identify the unique nature of hope, suggesting hope is invoked in particular when expectations of positive outcomes are low. As long as there is a possibility of those outcomes eventuating, individuals highly invested in them are more likely to hope; but with greater probability hope tends to align with optimism. In Study 1, for supporters of bottom-tier football teams strongly invested in the hoped-for outcome of their team winning, hope’s relationship with likelihood was cubic, accelerating with mere possibility; contrastingly, for optimism the relationship was linear. Study 2 replicated these findings for voters’ hope in state election outcomes. Hope is distinct from optimism and positive expectation; hope is tapped into when odds are low yet individuals are highly invested in the outcome.
KeywordsHope Optimism Positive expectation Possibility Personal investment
The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Gentes, E. L., & Ruscio, A. M. (2011). A meta-analysis of the relation of intolerance of uncertainty to symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 923–933. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.05.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gyurcsik, N. C., & Brawley, L. R. (2001). Is the glass half-full or half-empty? The relationship of big and little optimism with acute and longer term exercise-related social cognitions. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 6(2), 108–127. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9861.2001.tb00109.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Hope: An emotion and a vital coping resource against despair. Social Research, 66(2), 653–678.Google Scholar
- Nietszche, F. (1994). Human, all too human. London, UK: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570–585. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stotland, E. (1969). The psychology of hope. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- van den Bos, K., & Lind, E. A. (2002). Uncertainty management by means of fairness judgments. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 34, pp. 1–60). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- West, S., Aiken, L., Wu, W., & Taylor, A. (2007). Multiple regression: Applications of the basics and beyond in personality research. In Handbook of Research Methods in Personality Psychology, pp. 573–601.Google Scholar