The manner in which coaches regulate their emotions has implications for their performance and well-being. Drawing on research that has found perfectionism to predict emotion regulation in other settings, this study adopted the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism to examine whether subtypes of perfectionism among coaches were associated with variation in the use of emotion regulation strategies. Coaches (N = 238, M age = 23.92, SD = 10.32) from various sports completed measures of perfectionism (personal standards and evaluative concerns) and emotion regulation strategies (expressive suppression, cognitive reappraisal, and control of anger directed inwards and outwards). Moderated hierarchical regression provided mixed support for the 2 × 2 model. As expected, pure personal standards perfectionism (high standards/low concerns) was generally associated with the highest capacity for emotion regulation and pure evaluative concerns perfectionism (low standards/high concerns) with the lowest. Unexpectedly, mixed perfectionism (high standards/high concerns) was associated with the highest level of expressive suppression, suggesting that in some instances standards might exacerbate rather than attenuate concerns.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Exploration of this model to identify areas of misfit indicated that none of the standardized residual covariances exceeded 2.58 but two exceeded 1.96 (personal standards with parental pressure = −2.30 and personal standards with concern over mistakes = 2.30) and therefore provided two statistically significant discrepancies in the implied and observed data (Byrne 2001). Modification indices indicated that improvement in fit (so to exceed conventional criteria for ‘good’ fit) would be gained through re-specification of the model allowing for cross-loading of some of the sub-dimensions of perfectionism on latent factors (notably an inverse loadings of parental pressure on PSP and positive loading of concern over mistakes on PSP): χ2 (6) = 19.51, CFI = .97, TLI = .92, RMSEA = .10, 90 % CI .05–.15, SRMR = .05. Given that the assumption of zero cross-loadings may be overly restrictive in this context (Marsh et al. 2009), the observed fit here was considered acceptable.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage.
Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 217–237. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004.
Arbuckle, J. L. (2010). Amos 19.0.0. Chicago, IL: Smallwaters.
Bergman, A. J., Nyland, J. E., & Burns, L. R. (2007). Correlates with perfectionism and the utility of a dual process model. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 389–399. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2006.12.007.
Bresin, K., & Robinson, M. D. (2013). Losing control, literally: Relations between anger control, trait anger, and motor control. Cognition and Emotion, 27, 995–1012.
Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S., & Aiken, L. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analyses for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2009). An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 4, 307–323. doi:10.1260/174795409789623892.
Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Clara, I. P. (2002). The multidimensional structure of perfectionism in clinically distressed and college student samples. Psychological Assessment, 14, 365–373. doi:10.1037/1040-3518.104.22.1685.
Cumming, J., & Duda, J. L. (2012). Profiles of perfectionism, body-related concerns, and indicators of psychological health in vocational dance students: An investigation of the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 729–738. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.05.004.
Davis, P. A. (2011). Angry athletes: Psychological, physiological, and performance implications. In J. P. Welty (Ed.), Psychology of anger: Symptoms, causes and coping. New York, NY: Nova Science.
Davis, L., & Jowett, S. (2010). Investigating the interpersonal dynamics between coaches and athletes based on fundamental principles of attachment theory. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 112–132.
Davis, P. A., Woodman, T., & Callow, N. (2010). Better out than in: The influence of anger regulation on physical performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 457–460. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.04.017.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology, 49, 14–23. doi:10.1037/0708-5522.214.171.124.
Douilliez, C., & Lefèvre, F. (2011). Interactive effect of perfectionism dimensions on depressive symptoms: A reply to Gaudreau and Thompson (2010). Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 1147–1151. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.02.005.
Dunn, J. G. H., Gotwals, J. K., Causgrove Dunn, J., & Syrotuik, D. G. (2006). Examining the relationship between perfectionism and trait anger in competitive sport. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 4, 7–24. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2006.9671781.
Enns, M. W., & Cox, B. J. (2002). Nature and assessment of perfectionism. In G. L. Flett & P. L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 33–62). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Flett, A., Besser, P., & Hewitt, P. (2005). Perfectionism, ego defense styles, and depression: A comparison of self-reports versus informant ratings. Journal of Personality, 73, 1355–1396. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00352.x.
Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2006). Positive versus negative perfectionism in psychopathology. Behaviour Modification, 30, 472–495. doi:10.1177/0145445506288026.
Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., & De Rosa, T. (1996). Dimensions of perfectionism, psychosocial adjustment and social skills. Personality and Individual Differences, 20, 143–150. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(95)00170-0.
Frost, R. O., Heimberg, R. G., Holt, C. S., Mattia, J. I., & Neubauer, A. L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 119–126. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(93)90181-2.
Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, 449–468. doi:10.1007/BF01172967.
Funkenstein, D. H., King, S. H., & Drolette, M. E. (1954). The direction of anger during a laboratory stress-inducing situation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 16, 404–413.
Garnefski, N., Teerds, J., Kraaij, V., Legerstee, J., & Van Den Kommer, T. (2004). Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms, differences between males and females. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 267–276. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00083-7.
Gaudreau, P. (2012). A methodological note on the interactive and main effects of dualistic personality dimensions: An example using the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 26–31. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.08.022.
Gaudreau, P. (2013). The 2 × 2 model of perfectionism: Commenting the critical comments and suggestions of Stoeber (2012). Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 351–355. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2013.03.021.
Gaudreau, P., & Antl, S. (2008). Athletes’ broad dimensions of perfectionism: Examining change in life-satisfaction and the mediating role of motivation and coping. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 356–382.
Gaudreau, P., & Thompson, A. (2010). Testing a 2 × 2 model of dispositional perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 532–537. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.031.
Gaudreau, P., & Verner-Filion, J. (2012). Dispositional perfectionism and well-being: A test of the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism in the sport domain. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 1, 29–43. doi:10.1037/a0025747.
Gotwals, J. K., Stoeber, J., Dunn, J. G. H., & Stoll, O. (2012). Are perfectionistic strivings in sport adaptive? A systematic review of confirmatory, contradictory, and mixed evidence. Canadian Psychology, 53, 263–279. doi:10.1037/a0030288.
Graham, J. W., Cumsille, P. E., & Elek-Fisk, E. (2003). Methods for handling missing data. In J. A. Schinka & W. F. Velicer (Eds.), Research methods in psychology (pp. 87–112). New York, NY: Wiley.
Gross, J. J. (1998). Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 224–237. doi:10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199.
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.528.
Hanin, Y. L. (2000). Successful and poor performance and emotions. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 157–187). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Haukkala, A., Konttinen, H., Laatikainen, T., Kawachi, I., & Uutela, A. (2010). Hostility, anger control, and anger expression as predictors of cardiovascular disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, 556–562. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181dbab87.
Haver, A., Akerjordet, K., & Furunes, T. (2013). Emotion regulation and its implications for leadership: An integrative review and future research agenda. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 20, 287–303. doi:10.1177/1548051813485438.
Hewitt, P. L., Caelian, C. F., Flett, G. L., Sherry, S. B., Collins, L., & Flynn, C. A. (2002). Perfectionism in children: Associations with depression, anxiety and anger. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1049–1061. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00109-X.
Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456–470. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2066.
Hill, A. P. (2013). Perfectionism and athlete burnout: A test of the 2 × 2 model of dispositional perfectionism. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 35, 18–29.
Iyer, P., Korin, M. R., Higginbotham, L., & Davidson, K. W. (2010). Anger, anger expression, and health. In R. M. Kaplan (Ed.), Handbook of health psychology and behavioral medicine (pp. 120–132). New York: Guilford Press.
Jowett, S., & Nezlek, J. B. (2012). Relationship interdependence and satisfaction with important outcomes in coach–athlete dyads. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 29, 287–301. doi:10.1177/0265407511420980.
Keegan, R., Harwood, C., Spray, C., & Lavallee, D. (2009). A qualitative investigation exploring the motivational climate in early-career sports participants: Coach, parent and peer influences on sport motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 361–372. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.12.003.
Kerr, G., & Stirling, A. E. (2012). Parents’ reflections on their child’s experiences of emotionally abusive coaching practices. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 24, 191–206. doi:10.1080/10413200.2011.608413.
Koole, S. L. (2009). The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Cognition and Emotion, 23, 4–41. doi:10.1080/02699930802619031.
Lafrenière, M.-A. K., Jowett, S., Vallerand, R. J., & Carbonneau, N. (2011). Passion for coaching and the quality of the coach–athlete relationship: The mediating role of coaching behaviors. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 144–152. 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.08.002.
Lane, A. M., Beedie, C., Jones, M. V., Uphill, M., & Devonport, T. (2012). The BASES expert statement on emotion regulation in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30, 1189–1195. doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.693621.
Lane, A. M., Davis, P. A., & Devonport, T. J. (2011). Effects of music interventions on emotional states and running performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 10, 400–407.
Lorimer, R. (2013). The development of empathic accuracy in sports coaches. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 4, 26–33. doi:10.1080/21520704.2012.706696.
Marsh, H. W., Muthen, B., Asparouhov, T., Luedtke, O., Robitzch, A., Morin, A. J. S., et al. (2009). Exploratory structural equation modeling, integrating CFA and EFA: Application to students’ evaluations of university teaching. Structural Equation Modeling—A multidisciplinary Journal, 16, 439–476.
Martin, R. C., & Dahlen, E. R. (2005). Cognitive emotion regulation in the prediction of depression, anxiety, stress, and anger. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1249–1260. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.06.004.
Omli, J., & LaVoi, N. M. (2009). The perfect storm: Background anger in youth sports. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32, 242–260.
Opitz, P. C., Gross, J. J., & Urry, H. L. (2012). Selection, optimization, and compensation in the domain of emotion regulation: Applications to adolescence, older age, and major depressive disorder. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6, 142–155. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2011.00413.x.
Richards, J. M., & Gross, J. J. (2000). Emotion regulation and memory: The cognitive costs of keeping one’s cool. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 410–424. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.110.
Robazza, C., & Bortoli, L. (2007). Perceived impact of anger and anxiety on sporting performance in rugby players. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 875–896. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.07.005.
Ruiz, M., & Hanin, Y. (2011). Perceived impact of anger on performance of skilled karate athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 242–249. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.01.005.
Spielberger, C. D. (1999). Manual for the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Stoeber, J. (2012). The 2 × 2 model of perfectionism: A critical comment and some suggestions. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 541–545. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.04.029.
Stoeber, J., & Otto, K. (2006). Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence and challenges. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 295–319. doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr1004_2.
Sullivan, P., Paquette, K., Holt, N., & Bloom, G. (2012). The relation of coaching context and coach education to coaching efficacy and perceived leadership behaviors in youth sport. Sport Psychologist, 26, 122.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Tamir, M. (2009). What do people want to feel and why? Pleasure and utility in emotion regulation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 101–105. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01617.x.
Tamir, M., Chiu, C.-Y., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Business or pleasure? Utilitarian versus hedonic considerations in emotion regulation. Emotion, 7, 546–554. doi:10.1037/1528-3518.104.22.1686.
Tamir, M., & Mauss, I. B. (2011). Social cognitive factors in emotion regulation: Implications for well-being. In I. Nyklicek, A. Vingerhoets, M. Zeelenberg, & J. Donellet (Eds.), Emotion regulation and well-being (pp. 31–47). New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-6953-8_3.
Tashman, L. S., Tenenbaum, G., & Eklund, R. (2010). The effect of perceived stress on the relationship between perfectionism and burnout in coaches. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 23, 195–212. doi:10.1080/10615800802629922.
Uphill, M. A., Lane, A. M., & Jones, M. V. (2012). Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for use with athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 761–770. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.05.001.
Uphill, M. A., McCarthy, P. J., & Jones, M. V. (2009). Getting a grip on emotion regulation in sport: Conceptual foundations and practical applications. In S. Hanton & S. Mellalieu (Eds.), Advances in applied sport psychology (pp. 162–194). London: Routledge.
Vallance, J. K. H., Dunn, J. G. H., & Causgrove Dunn, J. L. (2006). Perfectionism, anger, and situation criticality in competitive youth ice hockey. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 28, 383–406.
Van Kleef, G. A. (2009). How emotions regulate social life the emotions as social information (EASI) model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 184–188. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01633.x.
Wagstaff, C., Fletcher, D., & Hanton, S. (2012). Exploring emotion abilities and regulation strategies in sport organizations. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 1, 268–282. doi:10.1037/a0028814.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Hill, A.P., Davis, P.A. Perfectionism and emotion regulation in coaches: A test of the 2 × 2 model of dispositional perfectionism. Motiv Emot 38, 715–726 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-014-9404-7