Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353–359.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.
Bartle, R. (1996). Hearts, clubs, diamonds, spades: Players who suit MUDs. Journal of MUD Research, 1 (1). Retrieved October 3, 2006, from http://www.mud.co.uk/richard/hcds.htm
Bartle, R. A. (2004). Designing virtual worlds. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.
Bostic, T. J., Rubio, D. M., & Hood, M. (2000). A validation of the subjective vitality scale using structural equation modeling. Social Indicators Research, 52, 313–324.
Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow. New York: Harper.
Deci, E. L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum.
Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A Meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627–668.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1980). The Empirical exploration of intrinsic motivational processes. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (vol. 13, pp. 39–80). New York: Academic Press.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.
Diener, E. & Emmons, R. A. (1984) The independence of positive and negative affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1105–1117.
Frederick, C., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). Differences in motivation for sport and exercise and their relations with participation and mental health. Journal of Sport Behavior, 16, 124–146.
Frederick, C. M., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Self-determination in sport: A review using cognitive evaluation theory. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 5–23.
Gee, J. P. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.
Gentile, D. A., & Anderson, C. A. (2003). Violent video games: The newest media violence hazard. In D. Gentile (Ed.), Media violence and children (pp. 131–152). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., Culverhouse, T., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2003). The process by which perceived autonomy support in physical education promotes leisure-time physical activity intentions and behavior: A trans-contextual model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 784–795.
Healy, J. M. (1990). Endangered minds. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Johnson, S. (2005). Everything bad is good for you. New York: Riverhead Books.
Jones, G. (2002). Killing monsters: Why children need fantasy, super heroes, and make-believe violence. New York: Basic Books.
Kirsch, S. J. (2006). Children, adolescents, and media violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Koster, R. (2005). A theory of fun for game design. Scottsdale, AZ: Paraglyph Press.
La Guardia, J. G., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Within-person variation in security of attachment: A Self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 367–384.
Lombard, M., & Ditton, T. (1997). At the heart of it all: The concept of presence. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3(2). Retrieved October 3, 2006, from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol3/issue2/lombard.html
Lombard, M., Ditton, T. B., Crane, D., Davis, B., Gil-Egui, G., Horvath, K., Rossman, J., & Park, S. (2000). Measuring presence: A literature-based approach to the development of a standardized paper-and-pencil instrument. Presented at the Third International Workshop on Presence, Delft, The Netherlands.
Malone, T. & Lepper, M. (1987). Making learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations in learning. In R. E. Snow & M. J. Farr (Eds.)Aptitude, learning and instruction: vol. 3. Conative and affective process analyses (pp. 223–253). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
O’Brien, E. J., & Epstein, S. (1988). The Multidimensional self-esteem inventory: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Raudenbush, R. W., Bryk, A., Cheong, Y. F., & Congdon, R. (2000). HLM5: Hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Chicago: Scientific Software International.
Rigby, S. (2004). Player Motivational Analysis: A model for applied research into the motivational dynamics of virtual worlds. Presented to the Motivation Research Group, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.
Ryan, R. M. (1995). Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes. Journal of Personality, 63, 397–427.
Ryan, R. M. & Brown, K. W. (2005). Legislating competence: The motivational impact of high stakes testing as an educational reform. In C. Dweck & A. E. Elliot (Eds.), Handbook of Competence (pp. 354–374) New York: Guilford Press
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000a). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000b). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A Review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. In S. Fiske (Ed.), Annual Review of Psychology (vol. 52, pp. 141–166). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, Inc.
Ryan, R. M., & Frederick, C. M. (1997). On energy, personality, and health: Subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of well-being. Journal of Personality, 65, 529–565.
Ryan, R. M., Mims, V., & Koestner, R. (1983). Relation of reward contingency and interpersonal context to intrinsic motivation: A Review and test using cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 736–750.
Setzer, V. W., & Duckett, G. E. (2000). The risks to children using electronic games. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from http://www.ime.usp.br/∼vwsetzer/video-g-risks.html
Vallerand, R. J., & Reid, G. (1984). On the causal effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6, 94–102.
White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The Concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297–333.
Yee, N. (2005, March 15). A model of player motivations. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001298.php?page=1
Yee, N. (in press). Motivations of play in online games. CyperberPsychology and Behavior.
Yi, M. (2004, December 18). They got game: Stacks of new releases for hungry video enthusiasts mean its boom time for an industry now even bigger than Hollywood. San Francisco Chronicle, p. A1.