Application of continuous flow and alternative energy devices for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural production
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Dehydration of fructose and glucose in dipolar, aprotic solvents leads to formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Conditions for continuous flow reactions using a cartridge-based reactor system and a stop-flow microwave reactor were established showing very good product yields and selectivity without the limitation of a batch process such as upscaling and precise temperature monitoring and control. A maximum product HPLC yield of 90.3% under cartridge-based heating and 85.6% under microwave heating could be achieved using mild and quick reaction conditions. Formation of levulinic acid as a by-product could not be detected under the optimized reaction conditions.
KeywordsFlow chemistry Carbohydrate dehydration 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Cartridge-based reactors Stopped-flow microwave
High performance liquid chromatography
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