Skip to main content

Effectiveness of the Local Adaptation Plan of Action to support climate change adaptation in Nepal

Abstract

A key challenge in climate change adaptation in developing countries as a whole, and to handling global change in particular, is to link local adaptation needs on the one hand, with national adaptation initiatives on the other, so that vulnerable households and communities can directly benefit. This study assesses the impact of the Nepal government’s efforts to promote its Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA) and its applicability to other least developed countries (LDCs). Based on data gathered from two field studies in Nepal, the research shows that the Nepal’s LAPA has succeeded in mobilizing local institutions and community groups in adaptation planning and recognizing their role in adaptation. However, the LAPA approach and implementation have been constrained by sociostructural and governance barriers that have failed to successfully integrate local adaptation needs in local planning and increase the adaptive capacity of vulnerable households. This paper describes the mechanisms of suitable governance strategies for climate change adaptation specific to Nepal and other LDCs. It also argues the need to adopt an adaptive comanagement approach, where the government and all stakeholders identify common local- and national-level mainstreaming strategy for knowledge management, resource mobilization, and institutional development, ultimately using adaptation as a tool to handle global change.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Adger WN, Arnell NW, Tompkins E (2005) Successful adaptation across scales. Glob Environ Chang 15(2):77–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agrawal A (2010) Local institutions and adaptation to climate change. Social dimensions of climate change: equity and vulnerability in a warming world. World Bank, Washington, pp 173–198

    Google Scholar 

  • Agrawal A, Perrin N, Chhatre A, Benson C, Kononen M (2012) Climate policy processes, local institutions, and adaptation actions: mechanisms of translation and influence. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Chang 3(6):565–579. doi:10.1002/wcc.193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Archie KM (2014) Mountain communities and climate change adaptation: barriers to planning and hurdles to implementation in the Southern Rocky Mountain Region of North America. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 19(5):569–587

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ayers J (2009) Progress in implementing NAPAs. Tiempo: Bull Clim Dev 69:15–19

    Google Scholar 

  • Ayers J (2011) Understanding the adaptation paradox: can global climate change adaptation policy be locally inclusive? PhD dissertation, London School of Economics and Political Science

  • Ayers J, Alam M, Huq S (2010) Global adaptation governance beyond 2012. Developing country perspectives. In: Biermaan F et al (eds) Global climate governance beyond 2012: architecture, agency and adaptation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Baker I, Peterson A, Brown G, McAlpine C (2012) Local government response to the impacts of climate change: an evaluation of local climate adaptation plans. Landsc Urban Plan 107(2):127–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bird N (2011) The future for climate finance in Nepal. Report for CDDE, Bangkok. ODI, London

  • Boyd E, Grist N, Juhola S, Nelson V (2009) Exploring development futures in a changing climate: frontiers for development policy and practice. Dev Policy Rev 27(6):659–674

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dalal-Clayton DB, Dent D, Dubois O (2003) Rural planning in developing countries: supporting natural resource management and sustainable livelihood. Earthscan/James and James, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Dhungana SP, Wagle R (2013) How climate change discourses are negotiated at meso level: revisiting annual development planning in Nepal. J For Livelihood 11(1):29–41

    Google Scholar 

  • Dodman D, Mitlin D (2013) Challenges for community based adaptation: discovering the potential for transformation. J Int Dev 25(5):640–659

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ensor J, Berger R (eds) (2009) Understanding climate change adaptation: lessons from community-based approaches. Practical Action Publications, Warwickshire

    Google Scholar 

  • Hardee K, Mutunga C (2010) Strengthening the link between climate change adaptation and national development plans: lessons from the case of population in National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs). Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 15(2):113–126

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Helvitas (eds) (2011) Nepal’s climate change policies and plans: local communities’ perspective. Helvitas-Swiss Intercorporation, Nepal

  • Hickey S, Mohan G (eds) (2004) Participation—from tyranny to transformation?: exploring new approaches to participation in development. Zed Books, New York

  • Huitema D, Jordan A, Massey E, Rayner T, van Asselt H, Haug C, Hildingsson R, Monni S, Stripple J (2011) The evaluation of climate policy: theory and emerging practice in Europe. Policy Sci 44(2):179–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huq S, Khan M (2006) Equity in national adaptation programs of action (NAPAs): the case of Bangladesh. In: Adger N, Paavola J, Huq S, Mace M (eds) Fairness in adaptation to climate change. MIT, Cambridge, pp 181–200

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacobs BC, Lee C, O’Toole D, Vines K (2014) Integrated regional vulnerability assessment of government services to climate change. Int J Clim Chang Strateg Manag 6(3):272–295

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khadka RB, Clayton DB, Mathema A, Shrestha P (eds) (2012) Safeguarding the future, securing Shangri-La—integrating environment and development in Nepal: achievements, challenges and next steps. International Institute for Environment and Development, UK

  • Khatri DB, Bistan R, Gurung N (2013) Climate change adaptation and local institutions: how to connect community groups with local government for adaptation planning. J For Livelihood 11(1):14–28

    Google Scholar 

  • Lasco RD, Pulhin FB, Jaranilla-Sanchez PA, Delfino RJP, Gerpacio R, Garcia K (2009) Mainstreaming adaptation in developing countries: the case of the Philippines. Clim Dev 1(2):130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leal Filho W (ed) (2013) Climate change and disasters management. Springer, Berlin

  • Leck H, Simon D (2013) Fostering multiscalar collaboration and co-operation for effective governance of climate change adaptation. Urban Stud 50(6):1221–1238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mansuri G, Rao V (2004) Community-based and-driven development: a critical review. World Bank Res Obs 19(1):1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mickwitz P (2003) A framework for evaluating environmental policy instruments. Evaluation 9(4):415–436

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mickwitz P, Kivimaa P (2007) Evaluating policy integration. Evaluation 13(1):68–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MoE (2011) Local adaptation plan of action (LAPA) framework. Ministry of Environment, Nepal

  • MoFAD—Ministry of Foreign Affairs Denmark (2009) Joint external evaluation. In: IIED (ed) Joint evaluation of NAPA. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Denmark, pp 1–79

    Google Scholar 

  • Nagel SS (ed) (1999) The substance of public policy. Commack, New York: Nova Science

  • Paudel NS, Khatri DB, Ojha H, Karki R, Gurung N (2013) Integrating climate change adaptation with local development: exploring institutional options. J For Livelihood 11(1):1–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Preston BL, Westaway RM, Yuen EJ (2010) Climate adaptation planning in practice: an evaluation of adaptation plans from three developed nations. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change:1–32

  • Regmi B, Bhandari D (2012) Climate change governance and funding dilemma in Nepal. TMC Acad J 7(1):40–55

    Google Scholar 

  • Regmi BR, Karki G (2010) Local adaptation plan of action (LAPA). Tiempo 76:21–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Reid H, Huq S, Murray L (eds) (2010) Community champions: adapting to climate challenges. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London

  • Roggema R (2012) Swarming landscapes: the art of designing for climate adaptation. In: Rogemma R (ed) The difficulties to design for climate adaptation. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 1–24

    Google Scholar 

  • Sada R, Shrestha A, Shukla AK, Melsen LA (2014) People’s experience and facts of changing climate: impacts and responses. Int J Clim Chang Strateg Manag 6(1):47–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanyal B (2005) Planning as anticipation of resistance. Plan Theory 4(3):225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tiwari KR, Rayamajhi S, Pokharel R (2014) Does Nepal’s climate change adaptation policy and practices address poor and vulnerable communities? J Law Policy Glob 23(1):28–38

    Google Scholar 

  • UNFCCC (eds) (2002) Guidelines for the preparation of National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA). LDC-LEG, Bonn, Germany

  • Urwin K, Jordan A (2008) Does public policy support or undermine climate change adaptation? Exploring policy interplay across different scales of governance. Glob Environ Chang 18(1):180–191

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watts R (eds) (2012) Linking national and local adaptation planning: lessons from Nepal. Institute of Development Studies, London

  • Wiggins S (eds) (2011). Adaptation united: building blocks from developing countries on integrated adaptation. Tearfund, London

  • Wiseman J, Williamson L, Fritze J (2010) Community engagement and climate change: learning from recent Australian experience. Int J Clim Chang Strateg Manag 2(2):134–147

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yamin F, Rahman A, Huq S (2005) Vulnerability, adaptation and climate disasters: a conceptual overview. IDS Bull 36(4):1–14

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Dr Susanne Schech, Dr Victoria Farrar-Myers, and Emily Collins for providing valuable input to strengthen the paper. The article could not have been developed without the support of the respondents, particularly the policy makers, practitioners, and communities interviewed in Nepal. Finally, the authors are very grateful to Flinders University for providing the opportunity to be engaged in research and academic learning.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Walter Leal Filho.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Regmi, B.R., Star, C. & Leal Filho, W. Effectiveness of the Local Adaptation Plan of Action to support climate change adaptation in Nepal. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 21, 461–478 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-014-9610-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-014-9610-3

Keywords

  • Climate change
  • Climate change adaptation
  • Comanagement
  • Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA)
  • Nepal
  • Least developed countries (LDCs)