Climate adaptation heuristics and the science/policy divide

  • Benjamin L. Preston
  • Johanna Mustelin
  • Megan C. Maloney
Original Article

Abstract

The adaptation science enterprise has expanded rapidly in recent years, presumably in response to growth in demand for knowledge that can facilitate adaptation policy and practice. However, evidence suggests such investments in adaptation science have not necessarily translated into adaptation implementation. One potential constraint on adaptation may be the underlying heuristics that are used as the foundation for both adaptation research and practice. Here, we explore the adaptation academic literature with the objective of identifying adaptation heuristics, assessing the extent to which they have become entrenched within the adaptation discourse, and discussing potential weaknesses in their framing that could undermine adaptation efforts. This investigation is supported by a multi-method analysis that includes both a quantitative content analysis of the adaptation literature that evidences the use of adaptation heuristics and a qualitative analysis of the implications of such heuristics for enhancing or hindering the implementation of adaptation. Results demonstrate that a number of heuristic devices are commonly used in both the peer-reviewed adaptation literature as well as within grey literature designed to inform adaptation practitioners. Furthermore, the apparent lack of critical reflection upon the robustness of these heuristics for diverse contexts may contribute to potential cognitive bias with respect to the framing of adaptation by both researchers and practitioners. We discuss this phenomenon by drawing upon heuristic-analytic theory, which has explanatory utility in understanding both the origins of such heuristics as well as the measures that can be pursued toward the co-generation of more robust approaches to adaptation problem-solving.

Keywords

Adaptation Climate change Heuristics Cognitive reasoning Science-policy interface 

References

  1. Adger WN (2003) Social capital, collective action, and adaptation to climate change. Econ Geogr 79(4):387–404Google Scholar
  2. Adger WN, Agrawala S, Mirza MMQ et al (2007) Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. Adger WN, Dessai S, Goulden M et al (2009a) Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change? Clim Chang 93:335–354Google Scholar
  4. Adger WN, Lorenzoni I, O’Brien K (2009b) Adaptation now. In: Adger WN, Lorenzoni I, O'Brien K (eds) Adapting to climate change: thresholds, values, governance. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  5. Agrawal A, Kononen M, Perrin N (2008) The role of local institutions in adaptation to climate change. Social Development Working Paper Series, Number 118, World Bank, Washington, DC. Available via http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/Resources/244362-1164107274725/sdp118.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  6. Andersson K, Ostrom E (2008) Analyzing decentralized resource regimes from a polycentric perspective. Pol Sci 41(1):71–93Google Scholar
  7. Arnstein SR (1969) A ladder of citizen participation. J Am Inst Plan 35(4):216–224Google Scholar
  8. Bäckstrand K (2004) Scientisation vs. civic expertise in environmental governance: eco-feminist, eco-modern and post-modern responses. Environ Pol 13(4):695–714Google Scholar
  9. Barnett J, O’Neill S (2010) Maladaptation. Glob Environ Chang 20(2):211–213Google Scholar
  10. Barnett J, Lambert S, Fry I (2008) The hazards of indicators: insights from the environmental vulnerability index. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 98(1):102–119Google Scholar
  11. Bauer N, Baumstark L, Leimbach M (2011) The REMIND-R model: the role of renewables in the low-carbon transformation-the first-best vs. second-best worlds. Clim Chang 114(1):146–168Google Scholar
  12. Bennear L, Stavins R (2007) Second-best theory and the use of multiple policy instruments. Environ Resour Econ 37(1):111–129Google Scholar
  13. Berkes F (2009) Evolution of co-management: role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations, and social learning. J Environ Manage 90(5):1692–1702Google Scholar
  14. Berkhout F, Hertin J, Gann DM (2006) Learning to adapt: organisational adaptation to climate change impacts. Clim Change 78(1):135–156Google Scholar
  15. Berrang-Ford L, Ford JD, Paterson J (2011) Are we adapting to climate change? Glob Environ Chang 21(1):25–33Google Scholar
  16. Billé R (2008) Integrated coastal zone management: four entrenched illusions. Surv Perspect Integr Environ Soc 1(2):1–12Google Scholar
  17. Biringer J, Guariguata MR, Locatelli B, et al (2005) Biodiversity in a changing climate: a framework for assessing vulnerability and evaluating practical responses. In: Robledo C, Kannienen M, Pedroni L (eds),Tropical forests and adaptation to climate change: In search of synergies. CIFOR, Bogor BaratGoogle Scholar
  18. Blackmore C (2007) What kinds of knowledge, knowing and learning are required for addressing resource dilemmas?: a theoretical overview. Environ Sci Pol 10(6):512–525Google Scholar
  19. Brick K, Van der Hoven Z, Visser M (2013) Cooperation and climate change. Can communicaiton faciliate the provision ofp ublic goods in heterogenous settings. EfD DP 12–14, Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series. University of Gothenburg and Resources for the Future, Gothenburg and Washington, DC. Available at http://manage.www.efdinitiative.org.zope.sizeit.se/www.efdinitiative.org/research/publications/publications-repository/cooperation-and-climate-change-can-communication-facilitate-the-provision-of-public-goods-in-heterogeneous-settings/files/EfD-DP-12-14.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  20. Brown A, Gawith M, Lonsdale K, et al (2011) Managing adaptation: Linking theory and practice. UK Climate Impacts Programme, Oxford. Available via http://www.ukcip.org.uk/wordpress/wp-content/PDFs/UKCIP_Managing_adaptation.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  21. Brunner RD, Lynch AH (2010) Adaptive governance and climate change. American Meteorological Society, BostonGoogle Scholar
  22. Brunner RD, Steelman TA, Coe-Juell L et al (2005) Adaptive governance: integrating science, policy, and decision-making. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Buob S, Stephan G (2008) Global climate change and the funding of adaptation. Discussion Papers, 08–04, Bern University, Bern. Available at http://www.vwl.unibe.ch/papers/dp/dp0804.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  24. Burandt S, Barth M (2010) Learning settings to face climate change. J Clean Prod 18(7):659–665Google Scholar
  25. Burkett M (2011) In Search of Refuge: Pacific Islands, Climate-Induced Migration and the Legal Frontier. In: Norris LK (ed), Asia Pacific Issues. Analysis from the East–west Centre, Nr 98, East–west Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu. Available via http://www.eastwestcenter.org/sites/default/files/private/api098.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  26. Burton I (2008) Beyond borders: The need for strategic global adaptation. Sustainable Development Opinion Policy Brief. December. International Institute for Environment and Development, London. Available via http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/17046IIED.pdf?. Cited August 14, 2013
  27. Burton I (2009a) Climate change and the adaptation deficit. In: Schipper ELF, Burton I (eds) The Earthscan reader on adaptation to climate change. Earthscan, London and SterlingGoogle Scholar
  28. Burton P (2009b) Conceptual, theoretical and practical issues in measuring the benefits of public participation. Evaluation 15(3):263–284Google Scholar
  29. Burton P, Mustelin J (2013) Planning for climate change: is greater public participation the key to success? Urban Pol Res. doi:10.1080/08111146.2013.778196 Google Scholar
  30. Burton I, Challenger B, Huq S et al (2001) Adaptation to climate change in the context of sustainable development and equity. In: McCarthy JJ, Canziani OF, Leary NA, Dokken DJ, White KS (eds) Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the third assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  31. Burton I, Diringer E, Smith J (2006) Adaptation to climate change: International policy options. Center for Climate Change and Energy Solutions, Arlington. Available via http://www.c2es.org/docUploads/PEW_Adaptation.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  32. Buys L, Miller E, van Megen K (2012) Conceptualising climate change in rural Australia: community perceptions, attitudes and (in) actions. Reg Environ Chang 12(1):237–248Google Scholar
  33. Campbell-Lendrum D, Corvalán C, Neira M (2007) Global climate change: implications for international public health policy. WHO Bull 85(3):235–237Google Scholar
  34. Carter TR (2007) Local climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Paper presented at the conference the future climatic window: local impacts of climate change, Seggau Castle, Leibnitz, 25–27 January 2007Google Scholar
  35. Catchpole R (2008) Current status of the practical implementation of ecological networks in England. State Institute for Nature Protection, Zagreb. Available via http://www.ecologicalnetworks.eu/documents/publications/ken/CroatiaKENWP2.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  36. Church JA, Aarup T, Woodworth PL et al (2010) Sea-level rise and variability: synthesis and outlook for the future. In: Church JA, Woodworth PL, Aarup T, Wilson WS (eds) Understanding sea-level rise and variability. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  37. Clark TW (2002) The policy process: a practical guide for natural resource professionals. Yale University Press, New Haven and LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Corfee-Morlot J, Cochran I, Hallegatte S et al (2011) Multilevel risk governance and urban adaptation policy. Clim Chang 104(1):169–197Google Scholar
  39. Cromp D, Cheadle A, Solomon L et al (2012) Kaiser Permanente’s farmers’ market program: description, impact, and lessons learned. J Agr Food Syst Comm Dev 2(2):29–36Google Scholar
  40. DCC (Department of Climate Change) (2007) National Climate Change Adaptation Framework, Department of Climate Change, Canberra. Available via http://www.climatechange.gov.au/sites/climatechange/files/documents/03_2013/nccaf.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  41. DCC (Department of Climate Change) (2009) Australian climate change science: A national framework. Department of Climate Change, Canberra. Available via http://www.climatechange.gov.au/sites/climatechange/files/documents/03_2013/national-framework-climate-change-science.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  42. DCC (Department of Climate Change) (2010) Adapting to climate change in Australia—An Australian government position paper. Department of Climate Change, Canberra. Available via http://www.climatechange.gov.au/sites/climatechange/files/documents/03_2013/adapt-climate-change-position-paper.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  43. Dedekorkut A, Mustelin J, Howes M et al (2010) Tempering growth: planning for the challenges of climate change and growth management in SEQ. Aust Plan 47(3):203–215Google Scholar
  44. Dessai S, Adger WN, Hulme M et al (2004) Defining and experiencing dangerous climate change. Clim Chang 64:11–25Google Scholar
  45. Dessai S, Hulme M, Lempert et al (2009) Climate prediction: a limit to adaptation? In: Adger WN, Lorenzoni I, O'Brien KL (eds) Adapting to climate change: thresholds, values, governance. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  46. Dilling L, Lemos MC (2011) Creating usable science: opportunities and constraints for climate knowledge use and their implications for science policy. Glob Environ Chang 21:680–689Google Scholar
  47. Dovers S (2009) Normalizing adaptation. Glob Environ Chang 19(1):4–6Google Scholar
  48. Dovers SR, Hezri AA (2010) Institutions and policy processes: the means to the ends of adaptation. WIREs Clim Chang 1(2):212–231Google Scholar
  49. Easterling W, Hurd B, Smith J (2004) Coping with climate change: The role of adaptation in the United States. Center for Climate Change and Energy Solutions, Arlington. Available at http://www.c2es.org/docUploads/Adaptation.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  50. Ebi KL (2011) Overview: adaptive management for the health risks of climate change. In: Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L (eds) Climate change adaptation in developed nations. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  51. Evans JSBT (2003) In two minds: dual-process accounts of reasoning. Trends Cogn Sci 7(10):454–459Google Scholar
  52. Evans J (2006) The heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning: extension and evaluation. Psychon Bull Rev 13(3):378–395Google Scholar
  53. Evans JSBT, Over DE (1996) Rationality and reasoning. Psychology Press, HoveGoogle Scholar
  54. Fisher F (2003) Reframing public policy—discursive politics and deliberative practices. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Flood R, Romm N (1996) Diversity management: triple loop learning. Wiley, West SussexGoogle Scholar
  56. Folke C, Hahn T, Olsson P et al (2005) Adaptive governance as social-ecological systems. Annu Rev Environ Resour 30:441–473Google Scholar
  57. Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L (2011) Introduction. In: Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L (eds) Climate change adaptation in developed nations. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  58. Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L, Paterson J (2011) A systemic review of observed climate change adaptation in developed nations. Clim Chang 106:327–336Google Scholar
  59. Forester J (1999) The deliberative practitioner: encouraging participatory planning processes. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  60. Fung F, Lopez A (1934) New M (2011) water availability in +2°C and +4°C worlds. Phil Trans R Soc A 369:99–116Google Scholar
  61. Gero A, Kuruppu N, Mukheibir P (2012) Cross-scale barriers to climate change adaptation in local government, Australia—Background report. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney. Available via http://www.isf.uts.edu.au/publications/geroetal2012climatebarrierslocalgovbackgrd.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  62. GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) (2011a) Adaptation to climate change: New findings, methods and solutions. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn. Available via http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib-2011/giz2011-0159en-climate-change.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  63. GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) (2011b) Making adaptation count: Concepts and options for monitoring and evaluation of climate change adaptation. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn. Available via http://pdf.wri.org/making_adaptation_count.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  64. Godin B (2006) The linear model of innovation: the historical construction of an analytical framework. Sci Technol Hum Values 31(6):639–667Google Scholar
  65. Godwa M (1999) Heuristics, biases, and the regulation of risk. Pol Sci 32(1):59–78Google Scholar
  66. Goldstein B (2009) Resilience to surprises through communicative planning. Ecol Soc 14(2):33Google Scholar
  67. Graeff S, Link J, Binder J et al (2012) Crop models as decision support systems. In: Sharma P, Abrol V (eds) Crop production technologies. InTech, RijekaGoogle Scholar
  68. Grasso M (2010) Justice in funding adaptation under the international climate change regime. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  69. Groot A, Maarleveld M (2000) Demystifying facilitation in participatory development. Gatekeeper Series no. 89, International Institute for Environment and Development, London. Available via http://pubs.iied.org/X188IIED.html?a=M%252520Maarleveld. Cited August 14, 2013
  70. Hadjichristidis C, Handley S, Sloman S et al (2007) Iffy beliefs: conditional thinking and belief change. Mem Cogn 35(8):2052–2059Google Scholar
  71. Hagmann J, Chuma E (2002) Enhancing the adaptive capcity of the resource users in natural resource management. Agric Syst 73(1):23–39Google Scholar
  72. Hall M, Weiss D (2012) Avoiding adaptation apartheid: climate change adaptation and human rights law. Yale J Int Law 37:310–366Google Scholar
  73. Hallegatte S (2009) Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change. Glob Environ Chang 19(2):240–247Google Scholar
  74. Hammer SG (2004) How can we deal better with climate risk in agriculture? Paper presented at the Outlook 2004 conference, Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Canberra, 2 March, 2004Google Scholar
  75. Handmer JW, Dovers S (2009) A typology of resilience: rethinking institutions for sustainable development. In: Schipper ELF, Burton I (eds) The Earthscan reader on adaptation to climate change. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  76. Hansen J, Holm L, Frewer L et al (2003) Beyond the knowledge deficit: recent research into lay and expert attitudes to food risks. Appetite 41:111–121Google Scholar
  77. Hartzell-Nichols L (2011) Responsibility for meeting the costs of adaptation. WIREs Clim Chang 2(5):687–700Google Scholar
  78. Hay J, Mimura N (2006) Supporting climate change vulnerability and adaptation assessments in the Asia-Pacific region: an example of sustainability science. Sustain Sci 1(1):23–35Google Scholar
  79. Heazle M (2010) Uncertainty in policy making: values and evidence in complex decisions. Earthscan, London and Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  80. Hedger MM, Mitchell T, Leavy J, et al (2008) Desk review: Evaluation of adaptation to climate change from a development perspective. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton. Available via http://www.preventionweb.net/files/7845_GEF20final20report20Oct20081.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  81. Heltberg R, Siegel PB, Jorgensen SL (2009) Addressing human vulnerability to climate change: toward a ‘no regrets’ approach. Glob Environ Chang 19(1):89–99Google Scholar
  82. Hickox WH, Nichols MD (2003) Climate research. Iss Sci Technol Spring. Available via http://www.issues.org/19.3/forum.htm. Cited August 14, 2013
  83. Hinkel J (2011) Indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity: towards a clarification of the science-policy interface. Glob Environ Chang 21(1):198–208Google Scholar
  84. Hulme M, O’Neill SJ, Dessai S (2011) Is weather event attribution necessary for adaptation funding? Science 334(6057):764–765Google Scholar
  85. Huntjens P, Pahl-Wostl C, Grin J (2010) Climate change adaptation in European river basins. Reg Environ Chang 10(4):263–284Google Scholar
  86. IPCC (Intergovernmantal Panel on Climate Change) (2001) Climate change 2001: Synthesis report. Watson RT, Albritton DL, Barker T, Bashmakov IA, Canziani O, Christ R, Cubasch U, Davidson O, Gitay H, Griggs D, Houghton J, House J, Kundzewicz Z, Lal M, Leary N, Magadza C, McCarthy JJ, Mitchell JFB, Moreira JR, Munasinghe M, Noble I, Pachauri R, Pittock AB, Prather M, Richels RG, Robinson JB, Sathaye J, Schneider SH, Scholes R, Stocker T, Sundararaman N, Swart R, Taniguchi T, Zhou, D (eds), Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  87. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007) Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds), Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  88. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2012) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. A special report of working groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Field, CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea M, Mach KJ, Plattner G-K, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM (eds), Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  89. Irandoust S (2009) Sustainable development in the context of climate change: a new approach for institutions of higher learning. Sustain Sci 4(2):135–137Google Scholar
  90. Jerneck A, Olsson L (2008) Adaptation and the poor: development, resilience and transition. Clim Pol 8(2):170–182Google Scholar
  91. Jones RN (2001) An environmental risk assessment/management framework for climate change impact assessment. Nat Hazards 23(2–3):197–230Google Scholar
  92. Jones RN (2004) Incorporating agency into climate change risk assessments. Clim Chang 67(1):13–36Google Scholar
  93. Jones RN, Dettmann P, Park G et al (2007) The relationship between adaptation and mitigation in managing climate change risks: A regional response from North Central Victoria, Australia. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 12(5):685–712Google Scholar
  94. Kahneman D, Slovic P, Tversky A (1982) Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  95. Kates RW, Travis WR, Wilbanks TJ (2012) Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. doi:10.1073/pnas.1115521109 Google Scholar
  96. Keskitalo ECH (ed) (2010) Developing adaptation policy and practice in Europe: multi-level governance of climate change. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  97. Keskitalo ECH, Kulyasova AA (2009) The role of governance in community adaptation to climate change. Polar Res 28(1):60–70Google Scholar
  98. Klein RJT (2009) Identifying countries that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change: an academic or political challenge? Carbon Clim Law Rev 3:284–291Google Scholar
  99. Klein RJT, Juhola S (2013) A framework for Nordic actor-oriented climate adaptation research. NORD-STAR Working Paper 2013–01, Nordic Centre of Excellence for Strategic Adaptation Research, Herning. Available via www.nord-star.info/workingpapers/wp-2013-01.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  100. Klein RJT, Nicholls RJ, Ragoonaden S et al (2001) Technological options for adaptation to climate change in coastal zones. J Coast Res 17(3):531–543Google Scholar
  101. Kolev A (2012) Mitigate, adapt or endure: A question of balance. In: Kolev A, Riess A-D, Zachmann G, Calthrop E, Investment and growth in the time of climate change. European Investment Bank and Bruegel, Luxemborg and Brussels. Available via http://www.eib.org/attachments/thematic/investment_and_growth_in_the_time_of_climate_change_en.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  102. Kpadonou RAB, Adégbola PY, Tovignan SD (2012) Local knowledge and adaptation to climate change in Ouémé valley, Benin. Afr Crop Sci J 20(2):181–192Google Scholar
  103. Kuhn TS (1996) The structure of scientific revolutions. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  104. Kuriakose A, Bizikova L, Bachofen CA (2009) Assessing vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate risks: methods for investigation at local and national levels. Social Development Working Paper Series, Number 116, World Bank, Washington, DC. Available via http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/Resources/244362-1164107274725/sdp116.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  105. Lambrou Y, Paina G (2006) Gender: The missing component of the response to climate change. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome. Available via ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/i0170e/i0170e00.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  106. Lamhauge N, Lanzi E, Agrawala S (2012) Monitoring and evaluation for adaptation: Lessons from development co-operation agencies. OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 38, OECD Publishing, Paris. Available via http://www.climate-expert.in/attachments/article/40/OECD%202012_ME%20for%20Adaptation.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  107. Leeuwis C, Pyburn R (eds) (2002) Wheelbarrows full of frogs: social learning in rural resource management.Koninklijke Van Gorcum, AssenGoogle Scholar
  108. Leiserowitz AA (2005) American risk perceptions: is climate change dangerous? Risk Anal 25(6):1433–1442Google Scholar
  109. Leith P (2011) Public engagement with climate adaptation: an imperative for (and driver of) institutional reform? In: Whitmarsh L, Lorenzoni I, O'Neill S (eds) Engaging the public with climate change: behaviour change and communication. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  110. Lemos MC, Tompkins EL (2008) Creating less disastrous disasters. IDS Bull 39(4):60–66Google Scholar
  111. Lesnikowski AC, Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L et al (2013) How are we adapting to climate change? A global assessment. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang. doi:10.1007/s11027-013-9491-x Google Scholar
  112. Li G, Dovers S (2011) Integrated assessment of climate change impacts on urban settlements: lessons from five Australian cases. In: Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L (eds) Climate change adaptation in developed nations. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  113. Lim B, Spanger-Siegfried E, Burton I et al (2005) Adaptation policy frameworks for climate change: developing strategies, policies, and measures. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  114. Lin A (2012) Does geoengineering present a moral hazard? Ecol Law Quart in pressGoogle Scholar
  115. Lindseth G (2005) Local level adaptation to climate change: discursive strategies in the Norwegian context. J Environ Pol Plan 7(1):61–83Google Scholar
  116. Lorenzoni I, Jordan A, O'Riordan T et al (2000) A co-evolutionary approach to climate change impact assessment: part II. A scenario-based case study in East Anglia (UK). Glob Environ Chang 10:145–155Google Scholar
  117. Lynch AH, Tryhorn L, Abramson R (2008) Working at the boundary: facilitating interdisciplinarity in climate change adaptation research. Bull Am Met Soc, February, 169–179Google Scholar
  118. MacLellan JI (2007) A bibliographic review of the climate change adaptation literature. Adaptation and Impacts Research Division, Environment Canada, Toronto. Available via http://projects.upei.ca/climate/files/2012/10/UTSC-Paper-71.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  119. McCarthy PD (2012) Climate change adaptation for people and nature: a case study from the US Southwest. Adv Clim Chang Res 3(1):22–37Google Scholar
  120. McKinney M, Baker L, Buvel AM et al (2010) Managing transboundary natural resources: an assessment of the need to revise and update the Columbia River Treaty. Hast W NW J Environ Law Pol 16(2):307Google Scholar
  121. Measham T, Preston BL (2012) Vulnerability analysis, risk and deliberation: the Sydney climate change adaptation initiative. In: Measham T, Lockie S (eds) Risk and social theory in environmental management. CSIRO Publishing, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  122. Measham T, Preston B, Smith T et al (2011) Adapting to climate change through local municipal planning: barriers and challenges. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 16(8):889–909Google Scholar
  123. MFAD (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark) and GEF (Global Environment Facility) (2009) Operation of the least developed countries fund for adaptation to climate change. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Copenhagen. Available via http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/documents/GEF.LDCF_.SCCF_.7.Inf4_.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  124. Moench M (2009) Adapting to climate change and the risks associated with natural hazards: methods for moving from concepts to action. In: Schipper ELF, Burton I (eds) The Earthscan reader on adaptation to climate change. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  125. Moser SC (2009a) Governance and the art of overcoming barriers to adaptation. IHDP Update Issue 3, International Human Dimensions Programme, Bonn. Available via http://www.ihdp.unu.edu/file/Update+3-2009/Update+3-2009_p31_Moser.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  126. Moser S (2009b) Making a difference on the ground: the challenge of demonstrating the effectiveness of decision support. Clim Chang 95(1):11–21Google Scholar
  127. Moser SC, Dilling L (2007) Toward the social tipping point: creating a climate for change. In: Moser SC, Dilling L (eds) Creating a climate for change: communicating climate change and facilitating social change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  128. Moser S, Ekstrom J (2010) A framework to diagnose barriers to climate change adaptation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(51):22026–22031Google Scholar
  129. Moser S, Franco G, Pittiglio S et al. (2009c) The future is now: An update on climate change science impacts and response options for California. California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program CEC-500-2008-071. Available via http://www.energy.ca.gov/2008publications/CEC-500-2008-077/CEC-500-2008-077.PDF. Cited August 14, 2013
  130. Mustelin J (2013) Ideal ideals or pragmatic reality? An exploration of the role of adaptation theory in policy and practice. Dissertation, School of Environment, Griffith UniversityGoogle Scholar
  131. Mustelin J, Klein R, Assaid B et al (2010) Understanding current and future vulnerability in coastal settings: community perceptions and preferences for adaptation in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Popul Environ 31(5):371–398Google Scholar
  132. Mustelin J, Kuruppu N, Kramer AM et al (2013) Climate adaptation research for the next generation. Clim Dev. doi:10.1080/17565529.2013.812953 Google Scholar
  133. Næss LO, Bang G, Eriksen S et al (2005) Institutional adaptation to climate change: flood responses at the municipal level in Norway. Glob Environ Chang 15(2):125–138Google Scholar
  134. Nelson DR, Adger WN, Brown K (2007) Adaptation to environmental change: contributions of a resilience framework. Annu Rev Environ Resour 32:395–419Google Scholar
  135. Nelson R, Howden M, Stafford Smith M (2008) Using adaptive governance to rethink the way science supports Australian drought policy. Environ Sci Pol 11(7):588–601Google Scholar
  136. Newstead S, Thompson V, Handley S (2002) Generating alternatives: a key component in human reasoning? Mem Cogn 30(1):129–137Google Scholar
  137. NISTPASS (National Institute for Science and Technology Policy and Strategy Studies) (2011) CC resilience planning in Vietnam - Experience from ACCCRN Vietnam. Paper presented at the Second World Congress on Cities and Adaptation to Climate Change, Bonn, 3–5 June, 2011Google Scholar
  138. O’Brien KL, Wolf J (2010) A values-based approach to vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. WIREs Clim Chang 1(2):232–242Google Scholar
  139. Oppermann E (2011) The discourse of adaptation to climate change and the UK Climate Impacts Programme: de-scribing the problematization of adaptation. Clim Dev 3(1):71–85Google Scholar
  140. Osman M (2004) An evaluation of dual-process theories of reasoning. Psychon Bull Rev 11(6):988–1010Google Scholar
  141. Park SE, Marshall NA, Jakku E et al (2012) Informing adaptation responses to climate change through theories of transformation. Glob Environ Chang 22(1):115–126Google Scholar
  142. Parry M, Arnell N, Berry P, et al (2009) Assessing the costs of adaptation to climate change: A review of the UNFCCC and other recent estimates. International Institute for Environment and Development and Grantham Institute for Climate Change, London. Available via http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/11501IIED.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  143. Patt A (2012) Multi-level climate adaptation policy and causation narratives. Dan J Geogr 112(2):174–182Google Scholar
  144. Patt A, Klein RJ, de la Vega-Leinert A (2005) Taking the uncertainty in climate-change vulnerability assessment seriously. CR Geosci 337(4):411–424Google Scholar
  145. Pelling M, High C (2005) Understanding adaptation: what can social capital offer assessments of adaptive capacity? Glob Environ Chang 15(4):308–319Google Scholar
  146. Petherick A (2012) Market watch: a note of caution. Nat Clim Chang 2:144–145Google Scholar
  147. Pielke RA Jr, Prins G, Rayner S et al (2007) Climate change 2007: lifting the taboo on adaptation. Nature 445:597–598Google Scholar
  148. Preston BL (2009) Equitable climate policy in a dangerous world. In: Moss J (ed) Climate change and social justice. Melbourne University Press, CarltonGoogle Scholar
  149. Preston BL, Kay RC (2010) Managing climate risk in human settlements. In: Jubb I, Holper P, Cai W (eds) Greenhouse 2009. CSIRO Press, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  150. Preston BL, Stafford-Smith M (2009) Framing vulnerability and adaptive capacity assessment: Working Paper 2, CSIRO Climate Adaptation National Research Flagship, Canberra. Available via http://www.csiro.au/org/ClimateAdaptationFlagship.html. Cited August 14, 2013
  151. Preston BL, Brooke C, Measham TG (2009) Igniting change in local government: lessons learned from a bushfire vulnerability assessment. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 14(3):251–283Google Scholar
  152. Preston BL, Westaway R, Yuen E (2011a) Climate adaptation planning in practice: an evaluation of adaptation plans from three developed nations. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 16(4):407–438Google Scholar
  153. Preston BL, Yuen E, Westaway R (2011b) Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: a review of approaches, benefits, and risks. Sustain Sci 6:177–202Google Scholar
  154. Preston BL, Rickards L, Dessai S et al (2013) Water, seas, and wine: science for successful adaptation. In: Moser S, Boykoff M (eds) Successful adaptation to climate change. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  155. Price MF, Neville GR (2003) Designing strategies to increase the resilience of alpine/montane systems to climate change. In: Hansen LJ, Biringer JL, Hoffman JR (eds), Buying time: A user’s manual for building resistance and resilience to climate change in natural systems. WWF, Berlin. Available via http://awsassets.panda.org/downloads/buyingtime_unfe.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  156. Prober SM, Thiele KR, Rundel PW et al (2012) Facilitating adaptation of biodiversity to climate change: a conceptual framework applied to the world’s largest Mediterranean-climate woodland. Clim Chang 110(1–2):227–248Google Scholar
  157. Productivity Commission (2011) Australia’s urban water sector. Report No. 55, Final Inquiry Report, Productivity Commission, Canberra. Available via http://www.pc.gov.au/projects/inquiry/urban-water/report. Cited August 14, 2013
  158. Ravetz JR (1972) Scientific knowledge and its social problems. Penguin, HarmondsworthGoogle Scholar
  159. Raymondi AM, Arias SD, Elder RC (2012) Technological solutions for climate change adaptation in the Peruvian highlands. In: Chhetri N (ed) Human and social dimensions of climate change. InTech, RijekaGoogle Scholar
  160. Reisinger A, Wratt D, Allan S et al (2011) The role of local government in adapting to climate change: lessons from New Zealand. In: Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L (eds) Climate change adaptation in developed nations. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  161. Repetto R (2008) The climate crisis and the adaptation myth. Working Paper 13, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven. Available via http://www.climateneeds.umd.edu/pdf/ClimateCrisisAdaptationMyth.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  162. Richardson A (1983) Participation. Routledge and Kegan Paul, LondonGoogle Scholar
  163. Richels RG, Blanford GJ, Rutherford TF (2009) International climate policy: a “second best” solution for a “second best” world? Clim Chang 97:289–296Google Scholar
  164. Rietbergen-McCracken J, Maginnis S, Sarre A (eds) (2007) The forest landscape restoration handbook. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  165. Rinner C, Kumari J, Mavedati S (2011) A geospatial web application to map observations and opinions in environmental planning. In: Li S, Dragicevic S, Veenendaal B (eds), Advances in webGIS, mapping services and applications. ISPRS book series No. 9, Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  166. Saavedra C, Budd WW (2009) Climate change and environmental planning: working to build community resilience and adaptive capacity in Washington State, USA. Habitat Int 33(3):246–252Google Scholar
  167. Sadauskis R (2011) Building resilience to climate-driven regime shifts. Dissertation, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm UniversityGoogle Scholar
  168. Satterthwaite D, Huq S, Pelling M, et al (2007) Adapting to climate change in urban areas: the possibilities and constraints in low-and middle-income nations. Human Settlements Discussion Paper Series, International Institute for Environment and Development, London. Available via http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/10549IIED.pdf?. Cited August 14, 2013
  169. Schipper ELF (2007) Climate change adaptation and development: Exploring the linkages. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper 107, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich. Available via http://www.preventionweb.net/files/7782_twp107.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  170. Schipper ELF, Burton I (eds) (2009a) The Earthscan reader on adaptation to climate change. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  171. Schipper ELF, Burton I (2009b) Understanding adaptation: origins, concepts, practice and policy. In: Schipper ELF, Burton I (eds) The Earthscan reader on adaptation to climate change. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  172. Schön DA, Rein M (1994) Frame reflection: toward the resolution of intractable policy controversies. BasicBooks, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  173. Scott C, Baehler K (2010) Adding value to policy analysis and advice. University of New South Wales Press Ltd, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  174. Sheffer T (2010) The key role of regional coastal adaptation planning in the United States. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  175. Simonsson L, Swartling ÅG, André K et al (2011) Perceptions of risk and limits to climate change adaptation: case studies of two Swedish urban regions. In: Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L (eds) Climate change adaptation in developed nations. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  176. Slovic P, Fischhoff B, Lichtenstein S (1982) Facts versus fears: understanding perceived risk. In: Kahneman D, Slovic P, Tversky A (eds) Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  177. Smith TF, Brooke C, Measham T, et al (2008) Case studies of adaptive capacity. Prepared for the Sydney Coastal Councils Group, Sydney. Available via http://www.sydneycoastalcouncils.com.au/sites/default/files/systapproachphasethreereport.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013.
  178. Sprague A (2012) Applied stormwater management workshop participants report. Ecology Action Centre, Halifax. Available via http://www.ecologyaction.ca/files/images/file/Coastal/stormwater/AppliedStormwaterManagemenParticipants_Report.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  179. Stafford Smith M, Horrocks L, Harvey A et al (2011) Rethinking adaptation for a 4°C world. Phil Trans R Soc A 369(1934):196–216Google Scholar
  180. Stanovich KE (1999) Who is rational? Studies of individual differences in reasoning. Erlbaum, MahwayGoogle Scholar
  181. Stokes DE (1997) Pasteur’s Quadrant—basic science and technological innovation. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  182. Streilein AS (2008) Making sense of change: how place-specific cultural models and experiential influencers are shaping understandings of climate change in two BC coastal communities. Dissertation, University of British ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  183. The White House (2009) Executive order 13514. Federal leadership in environmental energy and economic performance. Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, Washington, DC. Available via http://www.whitehouse.gov/assets/documents/2009fedleader_eo_rel.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  184. Thomsen DC, Smith TF, Keys N (2012) Adaptation or manipulation? Unpacking climate change response strategies. Ecol Soc 17(3):20Google Scholar
  185. Thornton PK, Jones PG, Ericksen PJ et al (2011) Agriculture and food systems in sub-Saharan Africa in a 4°C world. Phil Trans R Soc A 369(1934):117–136Google Scholar
  186. Todd MC, Taylor RG, Osborne T et al (2010) Quantifying the impact of climate change on water resources at the basin scale on five continents–a unified approach. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss 7:7485–7519Google Scholar
  187. Tol RS (2005) Adaptation and mitigation: trade-offs in substance and methods. Environ Sci Pol 8(6):572–578Google Scholar
  188. Tol RJS, Klein RJT, Nicholls RJ (2008) Towards successful adaptation to sea-level rise along Europe’s coasts. J Coast Res 24(2):432–442Google Scholar
  189. Tompkins EL, Adger WN, Boyd E et al (2010) Observed adaptation to climate change: UK evidence of transition to a well-adapting society. Glob Environ Chang 20(4):627–635Google Scholar
  190. Trench B (2008) Towards and analytical framework of science communication models. In: Cheng D, Claessens M, Gascoigne T, Metcalfe J, Schiele B, Shi S (eds) Communicating science in social Contexts. Nw models, new practices. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  191. UK Stationary Office (2008) Climate change act 2008.The Stationery Office Limited, London. Available via http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2008/27/contents. Cited August 14, 2013
  192. UK Stationary Office (2010) Adapting institutions to climate Change. 28th Report, The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, The Stationary Office Limited, London. Available via http://www.ukcip.org.uk/wordpress/wp-content/PDFs/RCEP_adaptation_final_report.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  193. U.S. EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) (2009) Synthesis of adaptation options for coastal areas. Climate Ready Estuaries, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Available via http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/cre/upload/CRE_Synthesis_1-09.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  194. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2007) Human development report 2007/08. Palgrave McMillan, New York. Available via http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_20072008_EN_Complete.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  195. UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) (2007a) Investment and financial flows to address climate change. Climate Change Secretariat, Bonn. Available via http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/publications/financial_flows.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  196. UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) (2007b) Synthesis of information on economic diversification submitted by Parties. Climate Change Secretariat, Bonn. Available via http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2007/sbsta/eng/14.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  197. Urwin K, Jordan A (2008) Does public policy support or undermine climate change adaptation? Exploring policy interplay across different scales of governance. Glob Environ Chang 18(1):180–191Google Scholar
  198. Walker WD, Lieb D, Gilbert L, et al (2010) Adapting to climate change: Why adaptation policy is more difficult than we think (and what to do about it). Adaptation Working Group Report, Wisconsin Intiative on Climate Change Impacts, University of Wisconsin System. Available via http://www.wicci.wisc.edu/report/Adaptation.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  199. Weber EU (2010) What shapes perceptions of climate change? WIREs Clim Chang 1:332–342Google Scholar
  200. Weinestedt H (2009) Stakeholder analysis as a tool for working with social responsibility: Developing a stakeholder analysis method for ISO 26000. Dissertation, Stockholm UniversityGoogle Scholar
  201. Wesselink A, Paavola J, Quillacq P, et al (2008) Attitudes affect implementation of participation in WFD: GoverNat project finds lack of enthusiasm for participatory approaches. Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig. Available via http://www.governat.eu/files/files/inbo_paper_governat.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  202. Wilby RL, Vaughan K (2011) Hallmarks of organisations that are adapting to climate change. Water Environ J 25(2):271–281Google Scholar
  203. Wilhelmi OV, Hayden MH (2010) Connecting people and place: a new framework for reducing urban vulnerability to extreme heat. Environ Res Lett 5(1):014021Google Scholar
  204. Wolf J, Adger WN, Lorenzoni I et al (2010) Social capital, individual responses to heat waves and climate change adaptation: an empirical study of two UK cities. Glob Environ Chang 20:44–52Google Scholar
  205. World Bank (2006) Clean energy and development. Towards an investment framework. World Bank, Washington DC. Available via http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DEVCOMMINT/Documentation/20890696/DC2006-0002(E)-CleanEnergy.pdf. Cited August 14, 2013
  206. Wynne B (1991) Knowledge in context. Sci Technol Hum Values 16(1):111–121Google Scholar
  207. Wynne B (2006) Public engagement as a means of restoring public trust in science—hitting the notes but missing the music? Commun Genet 9(3):211–220Google Scholar
  208. Yuen EJ, Stone Jovicich S, Preston BL (2012) Climate change vulnerability assessments as catalysts for social learning: four case studies in south-eastern Australia. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 18(5):567–590Google Scholar
  209. Yusoff S (2011) Curbing climate change through a national development of climate change policy. In: Broniewicz E (ed) Environmental management in practice. InTech, RijekaGoogle Scholar
  210. Ziervogel G, Bharwani S, Downing TE (2006) Adapting to climate variability: pumpkins, people and policy. Nat Resour Forum 30:294–305Google Scholar

Copyright information

© © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin L. Preston
    • 1
  • Johanna Mustelin
    • 2
  • Megan C. Maloney
    • 1
  1. 1.Climate Change Science Institute and Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Griffith Climate Change Response ProgramSchool of Environment, Griffith UniversityQueenslandAustralia

Personalised recommendations